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CLAT 2020- Everything You Need to Know

 

The Common Law Admission Test (CLAT) is the gateway to national law universities (NLUs) in the country. Currently, there are 22 NLUs that will be participating in CLAT 2020. It is conducted by the Consortium of NLUs that was established in 2017. The exam will be held on 10 May, 2020. It will be conducted offline. The official notification will be released in the last week of December. The application process will commence from 1 January, 2020.

ELIGIBILITY:

 Age limit:

For both undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) levels, there is no upper age limit.

Education Qualifications:

Undergraduate (UG): The qualifying examination is 10+2 or an equivalent examination. A candidate must have secured a minimum of 45% marks or its equivalent grade in case of candidate belonging to General / OBC / PWD / NRI / PIO / OCI categories. In the case of a candidate belonging to SC/ST categories, he/she must have secured 40% marks or its equivalent grade. The result of the qualifying examination (i.e., 10+2) shall be submitted by the candidate at the time of admission failing which the candidate shall be ineligible for admission to the Course.

Those who are appearing in the qualifying examination in March/April, 2020 are also eligible to appear in CLAT 2020 examination. However, they shall be required to produce evidence of their passing the qualifying examination at the time of admission. If they fail to do so, they shall lose their right to be considered for admission.

Postgraduate (PG): PG candidates will require an LLB degree or an equivalent examination. A candidate must have secured a minimum of 55% marks or its equivalent grade in case of candidates belonging to General/OBC/PWD/NRI/PIO/OCI categories. For SC/ST candidates, they must have secured a minimum of 50% marks or its equivalent grade. Those candidates who are appearing in the qualifying exam in April/May, 2020 are also eligible to apply.

Tie-breaker in case of equal marks in UG exam: If students score equal marks, then the break of tie shall be decided as under:

  1. Higher marks in the component/section on legal aptitude in the CLAT 2020 exam;
  2. Higher age;
  3. Computerised draw of lots.

PAPER PATTERN: CHANGES INTRODUCED

Undergraduate (UG): This time, the pattern has been revised to encourage critical thinking in the students. For the UG level, the number of questions has been reduced to 150 from the earlier 200. This has been done to reduce the stress that students had to bear while answering 200 questions in 2 hours. While the number of questions has reduced, their pattern has been changed to comprehension-based. This means that each answer will require careful thought and analysis. The number of sections remains the same. There will be five sections as follows:

  1. English Language
  2. Current Affairs, including General Knowledge
  3. Legal Reasoning
  4. Logical Reasoning
  5. Quantitative Techniques

In all, there will be 150 multiple choice questions of one mark each to be completed in 2 hours. There will be negative marking of 0.25 marks for each wrong answer.

Postgraduate (PG): For the PG students, the pattern and number of questions remain the same. There will be 150 questions to be completed in 2 hours. There will be 100 multiple choice questions of one mark each. There will be 2 essay-type questions of 25 marks each. These will be based on law and contemporary issues and should be 800 words per essay. The subjects covered under the exam are as follows:

  1. Constitutional Law
  2. Other Law Subjects such as Contract, Torts, Criminal Law, International Law, IPR and Jurisprudence.

A wrong answer will attract a negative marking of 0.25 marks.

This time, a cut-off has been introduced at the PG level. Only those candidates who secure minimum 40% marks (35% in case of SC, ST and PWD categories) in the objective section will qualify to have their answer scripts evaluated for the descriptive section.

APPLICATION FEE: The fees for the application form is Rs. 4000/- for General/OBC/PWD/NRI/PIO/OCI candidates and Rs. 3500/- for SC/ST/BPL category candidates.

Additionally, candidates can get previous years’ question papers for Rs. 500/- (not included in the application fee).

DEADLINE: The last date to submit the completed application form and pay the fees is 31 March, 2020.

All the details can be found on the official website: https://consortiumofnlus.ac.in

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Corporate Law Courses that Will Help You Build a Successful Legal Career

Author: Rishima Rawat

Corporate law is arguably the most popular field among law students. The attractive packages, the zeal of being part of billion-dollar deals and working in corporate law firms add to its charm. It is not a single subject but a collection of various subjects. These deal with various legal issues involved in a corporate transaction. Apart from that, corporate law also addresses compliance and governance issues in running a business.  With so many aspects to it, it offers a diverse range of subjects that a student can learn and develop an interest in.

Corporate lawyers generally have a specialized area that they excel in. For example, there are mergers and acquisitions lawyers (M&A), banking and finance lawyers, private equity lawyers and so on. This is also how teams are divided into big corporate law firms such as the Amarchands (SAM and CAM), AZB and Trilegal. So there is ample scope to grow as a lawyer in the corporate sector.

Thousands of law students graduate every year. Most of them want to be a corporate lawyer. There is intense competition for limited jobs. Law firms look for people who demonstrate, among other things, superior knowledge and application than their peers. This is where you need to be above everyone else. You need to put in more work than the usual class-work. As we already know, corporate law is huge. There are so many different subjects that one can choose from. Enhelion offers you that option- choose whichever course you wish to study from its vast collection of online corporate law courses. Some of the unique features of these courses are:

  • Affordable and self-paced
  • Certified by law firms
  • Taught by industry professionals
  • Students are given books on the subject that are published by Bloomsbury India.
  • Top performers get an opportunity to intern at a law firm and learn practical skills

 Here are some of the corporate law courses that you can study to enhance your knowledge.

Certificate in Legal Aspects of Business

Once you have decided to pursue a career in corporate law, it is important to start with the basics. This course will introduce you to corporate law. It will also help you develop an interdisciplinary approach since corporate law involves an interaction between other different laws. The course covers intellectual property law, competition law, and information technology law. It also has a module on contract drafting.

Certificate in Commercial Contracts

The foundation of being a good corporate lawyer is having command over commercial contracts. You need to have a good understanding of them before venturing into the field. This course helps you achieve that. Here, you will learn what areas are important in a commercial contract and how you can balance it.

Certificate in Understanding Companies Act, 2013 

Every business in India has to abide by the Companies Act, 2013. As a student of law, it is important to know the important provisions that companies must comply with. This is a comprehensive course on this legislation. It will help you grasp the concepts related to business such as setting up a company, its management, and audit and corporate social responsibility.

Certificate in Drafting Techniques in Commercial Contracts

This course is helpful for law students as well as professionals. Drafting is an essential skill that comes with practice. A well-drafted contract is quite advantageous for a business. This course will help you learn not just the fine techniques of drafting commercial contracts but also how to negotiate their terms. These are must-have skills for any budding corporate lawyer.

Certificate in Mergers and Acquisitions and Joint Ventures

India witnesses a vast amount of business deals, both domestic and global. M&A and joint ventures form a considerable part of them. They involve millions of dollars and legal expertise. Hence, lawyers play a very important role in successfully closing them. In this course, you will learn about M&A and joint ventures- their requirements, due diligence, and terms and conditions.

Certificate in Private Equity Law

 Private Equity (PE) has gained traction over the years. As investments in Indian companies increase, the PE practice also grows. PE simple means direct investments in private companies that give the investor a stake in the company. With a growing number of startups, this is the module followed by many investors. This course is very relevant, especially in today’s business climate. You will learn about private investments, venture capital funding, what this capital is used for and the necessary legal documentation.

Certificate in Joint Venture Agreements

Joint ventures are a common practice in the business world. As a future corporate lawyer, an understanding of a joint venture is a must for you. The earlier you get it, the better. This course will give you a thorough insight into joint ventures- their meaning, purpose, nuances of a term sheet, how to conduct due diligence and the important clauses in a joint venture agreement.

Certificate in Foreign Direct Investment

We keep hearing about changes to the FDI rules and how it will affect companies transacting business in India. But what exactly is FDI and how does it work? This course explains it in detail. Prepared by industry professionals, it explains the theories related to FDI, the process of capital and revenue procurement and the different sectors where FDI is allowed.

Certificate in Mergers and Acquisitions

An M&A transaction takes months to complete. It is a complex process involving an enormous amount of legal documents. If you do not know how it works, you will easily be overwhelmed by the entire process. To avoid tackling this enormous but very important process for the first time at your job, it is advisable to take this intensive course exclusively on M&A. It details everything from its concepts, the steps involved in the transaction, negotiations, various applicable laws and post-merger management.

Certificate in Banking and Insurance Laws

The banking and insurance sector in India is a vital component of the economy. It affects the lives of common people. As law students, you should know the fundamentals of these two sectors of the economy. This course teaches the basics of banking and insurance and the laws that are applicable to them.

Certificate in Investment and Banking Law

Investment banking is a highly lucrative field. The banking and investment sectors together have propelled the Indian economy to new heights. This area of law offers some incredible opportunities to law students to make a mark in the corporate world. In this course, you will learn about investment banking and its practice in India and related concepts such as NBFCs, FDI and the role of SEBI.

Certificate on Insolvency and Bankruptcy Laws (IBC)

The introduction of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) in 2016 was one of the major economic reforms in India. The aim is to expedite the process of insolvency and protect the interests of investors. It lays out a definite procedure for resolving insolvency and bankruptcy cases. Law students must know about this major reform and how it functions. You can take this course to learn about the IBC, the process, different individuals and entities involved in it (such as the resolution professional, corporate debtor and committee of creditors) and how the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) adjudicates the proceedings under IBC.

Certificate in International Business Law

 Businesses are going global. It is wise to widen your knowledge and learn about the international legal landscape. Courses at Enhelion are not just limited to indian law but also offer global perspective. This is one such course where you will learn about the international law aspects of business. You will get to learn about international corporate governance practices, international trade law and economics and market regulation. This will enable you to understand the issues related to international business and form a critical view.

Certificate in Law on Capital Markets

Capital markets is an important field that offers a number of growth opportunities. Almost all corporate law firms have dedicated capital markets teams. The subject witnesses constant developments as the business evolve rapidly. With this course, you will get an insight into the basic concepts of capital markets, the instruments involved (shares, debentures) and the powers and functions of the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).

Advanced Certificate on Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code

This is an advanced online course on the IBC. It will give you a detailed insight into the resolution process. You will learn about the role and responsibilities of the resolution professional, liquidator and operational and financial creditors. It also discusses the regulatory bodies- the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT) and the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI). This will help you to understand the regulatory framework under the IBC.

Certificate in Company Law and Compliance

Corporate law requires a lot of compliances. You must know which is the applicable law in a particular transaction and what are the necessary compliances. This course will teach you about why compliance is extremely important and what are the day-to-day and annual compliances to be met with.

Certificate on Corporate Governance

Many companies, especially startups, have fallen prey to dubious corporate practices. While knowing what laws a business must comply with is important, it is equally vital to ensure that it follows the best practices of corporate governance. Knowledge about corporate governance is an added advantage for any corporate lawyer. In this course, you will learn about the meaning of corporate governance, its principles and its legal and regulatory aspects.

 Apart from the certificate courses, we also have diploma courses. These offer an intensive knowledge of the subject that can be helpful to further develop expertise. Here are the diploma courses on corporate law:

Diploma in Corporate Laws

This is a detailed course that discusses everything from the formation of a business and raising investment to corporate governance, capital markets, M&A, arbitration and dispute resolution. It interlinks corporate law to other laws and explains their interactions. The different laws include contract law, information technology law, intellectual property law and competition law. It also discusses policy issues such as FDI and management practices in business organizations.

Diploma in Contract Drafting

Drafting of contracts is a highly important skill that many students fail to develop. A major part of corporate law is drafting agreements. If you do not know how to draft a commercial contract, you cannot be a successful corporate lawyer. This is a structured and advanced course on contract drafting. It has detailed modules that discuss how to negotiate contracts, the essential principles of drafting, sample clauses, contract management and some mistakes that are common in drafting. It also contains very helpful templates on different kinds of contracts.

Diploma in Mergers and Acquisitions

This advanced course details the entire process step by step. It has modules on each step- negotiation, due diligence, finances and M&A strategy. It also discusses the post-M&A scenarios such as the value that is created and how corporate restructuring takes place after an M&A transaction. It also contains case studies on M&A that will help you to understand how theory is applied to practice.

Diploma in Insolvency and Bankruptcy Law

As stated above, IBC is one of the major reforms in the economic sector. It is important for you to know about it. If you want to make a career as a banking and finance lawyer, this is a very important course that will give you a thorough understanding of the IBC. You will learn the insolvency and liquidation processes, the offences and penalties and the amendments that have been carried out in the code.

Diploma in International Trade

With inter-trade relations between countries often making it to political discussions, it cannot be denied that international trade has become an integral part of foreign policy for countries. Its rising significance makes it an even more interesting subject. This course will provide you with a perspective on global trade. It has been designed to teach you the concepts and classifications in international trade, the international bodies that govern trade-relations between countries and anti-dumping policies.

 Conclusion 

All these online courses offer practical insights into the subjects. You will come across these concepts in any corporate internship that you do. There is a difference between knowing something and applying it in real-time. These courses will give you an edge above other interns who may not know anything outside the textbook. You will not be caught off guard if you hear a particular term related to any of these subjects or are asked to carry out a particular process. The earlier you develop these skills and put them to practice in your internships, the better result you will get once you step into the professional world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Civil Law Courses That Will Prepare You for a Successful Legal Career

Author: Rishima Rawat

Civil law, as the name suggests, deals with non-criminal issues. These include contractual, property and family disputes, to name a few. It is one of the most important branches of law. A lot of work in the courts deals with civil laws and regulations. To fully understand court procedures and cases dealing with civil issues, a thorough understanding of various subjects is required. These are the ones that are constantly applied to real cases and are not necessarily taught in law school. Most law schools touch upon the important provisions of the Civil Procedure Code (CPC). However, it is a huge procedural code that cannot be fully understood without practice. Along with knowledge of the CPC and other laws, students should also know how to draft relevant documents.

A lot of aspects of civil laws involve applying them to practice. There exists a gap between the theoretical knowledge taught in law school and practical industry experience. One way to bridge this gap is by undertaking additional online legal courses on the subject. It not only provides practical insights but also gives you additional knowledge about provisions that you may not have studied as part of your curriculum. This post is about online civil law courses offered by Enhelion that you can enrol in to get some valuable insights.

Certificate on Civil Procedure Code [CPC] 

The CPC is the fundamental course that you should be thorough with if you want to make a career in litigation. You must know the associated legal concepts such as res judicata, the jurisdiction of courts and other provisions. The CPC is a comprehensive code that covers everything related to civil jurisprudence- from the definition of a suit, in which court the suit should be filed to how a pleading should be written and what it should contain. This course will provide you with an understanding of these concepts.

Certificate in Right To Information 

Ever since its enactment in 2005, the Right to Information (RTI) has served as an important tool to demand information from public authorities, which was previously a daunting task. It is an instrument to demand accountability from public institutions. It has empowered the public to use its right to know how public authorities function. Though it is significant legislation, it is not taught in many law schools as part of the curriculum. But Enhelion offers a specially curated course on this Act. It will help you to understand the law and its various provisions. It will also give you a perspective on the importance of data protection and e-governance. As a law student, you should be aware of the process of filing an RTI application. A highlight of this course is its module dedicated to the practical training on the filing of RTI applications. It is highly useful for law students as well as professionals who want to learn about RTI but have not had the chance to do so.

Certificate in Specific Relief and Limitation

 Consider the situation. A person comes to you for help, knowing that you are a senior law student and in a position to help him. He tells you about his contractual dispute from some years ago. He asks for your advice- what remedies can he ask for and can he file a suit after all these years. If you are aware of the relevant laws and provisions, you will be able to answer him. But if not, it may well be an embarrassing situation that you would definitely want to avoid in the future.

The Specific Relief Act and the Limitation Act, the two laws dealing with the above example, are frequently referred to in contractual and civil disputes. However, many times, they are ignored by students. They are not thorough with their provisions. Many are often clueless. While the Specific Relief Act lists the remedies that are available to people whose contractual or civil rights have been violated, the Limitation Act prescribes the time within which different kinds of suits must be filed before the court for them to be heard. Thus, these two legislations are important in civil law practice in India. For any student looking to practice in civil courts, it is important to know these subjects. This is what this course aims to achieve. It explains the remedies provided in the Specific Relief Act, such as the recovery of property and specific performance of contracts. It also describes the important provisions of the Limitation Act and how they are applied in practice.

Certificate in Drafting, Pleading and Conveyance 

Little attention is paid to the drafting of court documents in college. Drafting is an important skill that is always employed in the legal profession. Any document, in order to be admitted by the court, has to be written in the correct format. If it is incorrect, it can have a significant impact on the fate of the case/application. This course will help you understand the technique of drafting various documents such as plaints, written statements, injunctions, and affidavit. You will also learn to draft documents for conveyancing such as sale deed, gift deed, and mortgage deed. When you practice these drafting skills in your internship, it will make you stand out from others who may not know the drafting process behind these documents. By the time you enter the profession, you will be able to draft them without any hassles.

 

Advanced Certificate on Civil Procedural Laws in India

The difference between an appeal and revision or judgment, order and decree are basic concepts of civil law. Every law student should know them, regardless of the career that you choose later on. These are the foundational blocks of civil law practice in India. If you intend to make a career in litigation, you must be thorough with these and all other concepts. This advanced online course offers a comprehensive conceptual understanding of civil procedure laws in the country. It discusses the CPC, the Specific Relief Act and the Limitation Act together to help you recognize their interaction in the legal domain.

 Conclusion 

The courses discussed in this post are the sine qua non of civil law. You cannot become a good lawyer without learning and practicing them. Most students do not pay attention to these topics in law school. They struggle later when they are faced with situations in internships that require a knowledge of these subjects. Even if you do not want to pursue a career in civil litigation, you must know about them. Law is an interconnected field. One branch of the law will interact with another. You may have to draft an affidavit or argue for specific relief in a contractual dispute. The knowledge of these subjects will be an extra boost to your practice and career.

 

 

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Criminal Law Courses That Will Help you Stand Out

Author: Rishima Rawat

Law is a dynamic field. There are constant developments almost every day. These are not just limited to the amendments in laws and regulations. But the field itself experiences constant changes with respect to the subject. While we update our knowledge of the latest legal developments, we often fail to upgrade our skills. If you wish to make a career in criminal law, a piece of general knowledge about various offences will limit your chances of becoming a good lawyer. To work with the best criminal lawyers and make a good impression, you have to be prepared with an additional skill set that will set you apart from others. Law schools teach you only the basics of substantive and procedural criminal law. They have to cover the entire subject in one or two semesters. So they teach some portions and leave out the rest. This does not mean that those remaining portions are not important. The smart thing to do here is to learn about them yourself rather than giving the excuse, “We were not taught about this in law school.”

How can you learn more about criminal law? 

 Enhelion offers some in-depth online courses on criminal law. These cover the traditional as well as new and current subjects. The courses are self-paced so you can complete them as per your convenience. They are certified by lawyers and law firms working in the field. You get to learn directly from the practitioners. The top performers are given a chance to train with them as interns.

Here is a list of criminal law online courses that will give you an edge over others.

 1. Certificate on Indian Penal Code (IPC) 

IPC is the first law that is invoked when an offence is committed. It the the main substantive criminal law that defines all the offences and prescribes punishments for them. This certificate course explains all the chapters of the IPC. It covers the necessary ingredients of offences and explains criminal law concepts with the help of case laws.

 2. Certificate on Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC)

 After the offence has been identified, it has to be investigated, tried in court and the guilty have to be punished. How this process will be conducted in explained in the CrPC. It is the procedural code that details every procedure involved right from the investigation stage to the trial and sentencing stage. In this course, you will learn how the police investigates a case, how the court takes cognizance of the offence, frames charges, how the accused and victim are to be treated and every other procedural aspect relating to criminal law in India.

  3. Certificate on the Law of Evidence

Completing the body of criminal law in India is the law of evidence. It is detailed in the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. We know that evidence is required to prove that the offence has been committed by the accused. But not everything can be admitted as evidence in a court. The Evidence Act contains what qualifies as evidence and sets certain rules regarding its admissibility. This course explains all the chapters of the act. It discusses the important points of all the sections along with illustrations and case laws.

4.  Diploma in Criminal Law 

Any situation dealing with a crime involves the interplay between substantive and procedural law. What is the offence that is committed? How will the investigation and trial be conducted? What is the evidence and will it admissible in court? All these questions cover both the substance and procedure of law. This online diploma course combines both these branches of law to give you a holistic understanding of criminal law in India. It covers the Indian Penal Code, the Criminal Procedure Code and the Indian Evidence Act. In this course, you will learn how these three major laws work in tandem and shape the criminal justice system in the country. It is taught by highly experienced faculty. The evaluation includes two MCQ tests and two project assignments.

 5. Certificate Course on White Collar Crimes and Financial Frauds 

Money laundering, bank fraud, bribery, insider trading, corruption- we have been hearing these terms for quite some time now. They fall under the category of white-collar crimes. The recent rise in economic offences compelled the government to introduce special legislation to deal with them. So while we may know what happened and who is involved, it is important, as law students, to understand the legal nuances of these offences.  It is equally important for legal professionals to have knowledge of how the law handles white-collar crimes and economic offences. This course, in association with Atharva Legal LLP, is designed to do just that. It explains white-collar crimes and the international and national legal and regulatory frameworks that are in place to deal with them.

  6. Certificate Course in Preventing Sexual Harassment at Workplace 

A safe workplace is the right of every employee. It is not only beneficial for the employees but also the employers. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act was enacted in 2013. It lists the obligations of employers to deal with the issue of workplace sexual harassment. Despite the law being in place for so long, there are many organizations that do not have the mandated safeguards and agencies in place. This reflects a clear lack in the implementation of the legislation. It took a global movement to bring attention to this menace that has been prevalent for far too long. Even then, many workplaces lack the prescribed institutional support. It has become even more important today for students and lawyers to understand this law and help organizations implement it. In this course, you will learn how the law requires an organization to record a complaint and investigate it. It also has separate modules on personal conduct and anti-sexual harassment training. Once you know this subject, you can even have a career as a consultant in this field and help make workplaces safer.

7. Diploma in International Humanitarian Law 

Civilian casualties in a warzone, countries attacking each other, treatment of prisoners of war- are these situations governed by any branch of law? Yes. It is called International Humanitarian Law that deals with international armed conflict. It is a set of rules that are to be observed by parties engaged in armed conflict. It aims to protect civilians and those people who are not a part of the hostilities. For example, journalists who cover wars or medical professionals who are there to provide aid to the injured. This online diploma gives you detailed information about the development of international humanitarian law, its application and war crimes and tribunals. It is an important subject insofar as international politics and events are concerned. As students, it will give you a perspective on global issues and how the international community deals with them.

Conclusion

These are some of the courses that will help you build additional skills. They are self-paced and taught by industry practitioners. They will help you to understand the current issues in the subject in a better manner and give you a legal perspective. Recruiters are always looking for people who can add value to the job. With more knowledge through online courses at your behest, you can demonstrate a higher level of learning and understanding compared to your peers.

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How to Make a Lasting Impression During a Legal Internship?

Author: Rishima Rawat

Legal internships are an important opportunity to secure a job. It is important to make a lasting impression so that the organization considers you for a permanent role. This article lists some simple tips that you can follow to make a mark.

How to Make a Lasting Impression During a Legal Internship?

 Internships in law school play a huge part in the learning process. They bridge the gap between theory and practice. Whatever you learn in the classroom, you get to apply that to real situations. A legal internship helps you build your CV, explore different areas of interest and land your dream job. But it is not easy to get an internship at your place of choice. You need to compete with others, clear interviews (in some cases), send multiple applications to different places and follow-up on them. Even after all this, there is no guarantee that you will surely get the internship. The process is long, tiring, many times dejecting because some firms outrightly reject applications. Of course, it is easier if your college helps in securing internships or if you have contacts in the industry. But if you are managing on your own, it can be quite a tedious task.

Let’s say that you have secured an internship at an organisation. You really want to make the most of it and leave a good impression on the people. After all, they can be your potential employers. How can you use this opportunity to your advantage? What is it that you can do that makes you stand out from the rest of the interns? Here are some points that you can keep in mind when going for an internship.

1. Prepare about the firm/organisation

 Before you join, read up on the organisation, its core practice areas, its main people and any recent major deals or cases that it has been a part of. This information is available through simple research. It serves as a good introduction to the firm. Some firms do not have a prominent social media presence or a dedicated website. But they are reputed and highly regarded in the industry. It gets difficult to know about them. You may have to put in extra effort here and network with the associates working there to get some information. I once interned with a reputed firm that does not have a website nor is covered much in the media. Before starting my internship, I reached out to a senior from college who was working there and asked him general questions about the firm and the do’s and don’ts. This served me in two ways- it made me a bit more comfortable before beginning the internship and it made the senior aware that I would be joining the office. So he met me on the first day, introduced me to some of the office staff and encouraged me to learn as much as I could.

2. Develop a willingness to learn 

One thing you should understand is that it will be a professional environment. And that is how you will be expected to conduct yourself. There is a certain decorum to be maintained in the office. Do not be arrogant. Treat the internship as a learning opportunity. Whatever work you are given, do it diligently and sincerely. You will not be expected to know everything about the law. However, what people will observe is your work ethic. There will be other interns in the office. Avoid unnecessary competition with them. Instead, network with them, work together on projects if the situation permits and learn from them. Do not be intimidated by people from ‘better’ colleges. Be confident about yourself. If you think the other person knows more than you, build your knowledge with additional online law courses so that in your next legal internship, you will have an edge over others.

 3. Punctuality still counts

As a student, one does not put much effort into being punctual. But a legal internship is your introduction to the professional world. You must treat it as a professional assignment. Reach the office on time. If you can reach 10-15 minutes early, even better. The point is that you should be at your workstation before your managing associate and other team members. As for leaving the office, in law firms, there is usually no particular time. Even in law chambers, you may have to work late. It helps if you stay back for some time. There is always some work and if you ask around, you will get it. Working till late indicates that you don’t have a problem with it and are dedicated to the job. It also shows that you are fit for the law firm culture since associates in most law firms work till late in the night.

If you are asked to work on weekends, do not refuse. Your primary aim at the internship should be to learn as much as you can. The day of the week should not matter. I was called to work on my birthday (which fell on a Sunday) in one of the internships. It was work as usual after the customary greetings. Since it was a major case in Delhi, it was a rare opportunity to directly assist the core litigation team. It still remains one of my most enriching experiences.

4. Work hard and smart

 The most important aspect of your internship is whether you can work in the organisation. Introduce yourself to your team on the first day. Meet them personally or send them an email telling them that you have joined the team. Whatever research or drafting you do, make sure it is presentable. For example, if you are asked to research cases, highlight the relevant part of the case so that it is easier for the associate/partner to read. Judgments can run into hundreds of pages and often, there is not much time for the associates to go through all of them. Flag the appropriate page, highlight the relevant lines and make a side note about its relevance. If you are preparing a note, ensure that you write in a concise manner and include footnotes wherever required. Avoid long paragraphs. Instead, include bullet points.

Whether you are interning at a law firm, an NGO, a company or a lawyer’s chamber, do not say no to a work you think is ‘small ‘. There are times when interns are given work such as making a list of documents, proofreading them or simply getting printouts and copies of cases. If you get such work, do not refuse. Make sure to do it in the best possible way. Many times, associates start off with small tasks to see if you can handle bigger ones.  I was once asked to print copies of cases and prepare a table of contents for the case file. Satisfied with my work, the concerned associate asked me to assist her with research and drafting on her other projects too.

 5. Manage your workload 

 Usually, interns are assigned to a particular team and they work with them throughout the internship. This does not mean that other lawyers will not give you work. If an associate from another team gives you work, take it up only if you will be able to finish it in time. Sticking to the deadline is very important. Your priority should be your team. But if someone else gives you work, ask how urgent it is and then decide if you will be able to finish it in time. Here’s another personal experience to illustrate this further. After interviewing through the college placement committee, I managed to secure an internship at one of the ‘big six’ law firms. I was eager to impress so I took up whatever work I was given. Once I was working for another associate when a senior associate from my team gave me work. He asked me if I was working on something else. If I was, he would find someone else or do it himself. I did not want to refuse a team assignment so I told him I would do it. I thought I would manage but I was wrong. By the time I finished my pending assignment, it was already late. He had done the work himself. I was fortunate enough to not get shouted at. Instead, the senior associate, who later became my mentor in the internship, politely explained to me how my overconfidence in my abilities had kept the client waiting. I had learnt my lesson. After that, I never took up more work than I could handle. Even in my subsequent internships, I always asked the associates when they required the work. If I felt I could not complete it in time, I politely told them.

Nobody will hold it against you if you tell them that you already have enough work. But if you take it up and do not deliver, it will not reflect well on you.

6. Networking

Yes, internships are mostly about work. But they are also about making connections.  If the associates invite you for lunch, go. If the situation allows, speak to them about their experience. Slowly build a rapport and ask them about things that you would like to know about the firm. You need to tread carefully here and observe the environment. You cannot appear too pushy or intrusive. Not everyone would be willing to answer your questions. Take your time to understand if you can have such conversations with your colleagues.

As a courtesy, send a mail to your team at the end of your internship, thanking them for their time and guidance. Ask them for feedback- what they thought about you and how you can improve. This reflects that you are open to learning and improving your skillset. Make connections and keep in touch even after your internship. They are your seniors and can be of help later.

A few other important things to keep in mind are to dress well. Law firms, chambers and other organisations usually have a professional business dress code. Make sure that you are dressed accordingly. Avoid too much social media during office hours. If you are taking a break, then it’s fine. But do not keep checking your phone while working.

Conclusion

 The points mentioned above are not exhaustive steps to do well in an internship. They are simply pointers to tell you what you can do. Ultimately, it all depends on how to conduct yourself during the internship. If you treat it as a learning opportunity, you will succeed in making an impression. But if you consider it as just another addition to your CV, you will not get any benefit out of it. It is a great time for you to learn the real trade and make some connections in the industry. Use it wisely.

 

 

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Why Choosing a Specialization in Law Helps

Author: Rishima Rawat

Over the course of five years in law school, you will study at least fifty subjects. Add to this the numerous law courses available online and the number will be much higher. This should be enough to reflect that there are numerous avenues in law that you can choose. With so many subjects, there is a vast pool of choices that you can pick from. But having more choices can also lead to confusion. This is especially the case when it comes to choosing a specialization. Having a specialization means that you will study that subject in greater detail. That will be your main subject and your future area of practice.

Initially, knowing everything seems to be a more attractive option. Some people like to think that knowing every subject will give them a better understanding of the law overall. They become general practitioners who advise on every legal subject. Others think that if they specialize in one subject, they will end up confining themselves only to that area. While these thought processes may seem correct initially, they may only be valid for short-term. On the other hand, for a long-term plan, it is advantageous to have specialized knowledge in a particular subject. In this article, we will tell you why having a specialization in law is helpful for your career.

 Become an expert, a go-to person 

When we suffer from a disease, we go to a doctor who specializes in that area of medicine. For example, a heart patient will go to a cardiologist, a person suffering from a skin ailment will go to a dermatologist and so on. This is because we know that person has the expertise to handle that particular case. Now let’s apply the same logic to law. Someone who needs advice on a merger and acquisition transaction will go to a lawyer who specializes in M&A. If a company wants to list its securities on the stock market, it will approach a capital markets lawyer. Why? For the same reason that they are experts in their respective fields. This is what a specialization offers. It makes you a go-to person for that area of law. You gain in-depth knowledge of the subject. This allows you to answer every query of your client.  With practice, you gain knowledge and can even become an expert in that field of law.

 You develop a certain clientele

Once you develop a specialized practice, you attract clients from that industry. Your practice grows and so does your clientele. Once established, you get in a position to choose your clients. You may reject clients if they do not meet your expectations. This way, a specialized practice allows you to develop your own clientele. It is especially true in cases where the practice area is niche. For example, aviation law or sports law. Lawyers specializing in these fields build their own niche clientele. Their clients know that these lawyers are among the few people who have the expertise required to best serve their interests.

You get recognized in the industry 

With a specialized practice area, you meet people from that industry. It can either be while studying the course or working in that field. When you do good work, the word spreads. As more people get to know about you, you start getting recognized. This recognition begets more work. Thus, choosing a specialization will help you make a name and stand out. A general legal practitioner may not get such kind of recognition.

Specialization is interesting

The prospect of studying a subject in-and-out is both challenging and interesting. A general legal practitioner may be able to give advice on a matter but it will not be as nuanced as a specialist. Sometimes, he may not even have sufficient knowledge of the subject. On the other hand, a specialization will equip you to answer any question related to the field. If there is any new development in that area of law, people will turn to you for advice. For example, when cryptocurrency and digital payments became popular in India, it gave rise to a new field- fintech law. It deals with the interplay between financial transactions and technology. Lawyers who were practicing in technology and banking and finance were sought by various entities to understand the framework of these new developments. Such interesting developments can lead you to work in different innovative fields involving the subject of your specialization.

Conclusion 

Choosing a specialization in law can help shape your career. It equips you with a skill set that you must keep polishing every day. What subject you choose to specialize in depends on you. It should be something you are interested in because you will be working on that subject for a long time. If it does not interest you, you will face a burnout in a short time. This is true for every subject regardless of the branch of law- corporate, criminal or civil. After you have chosen a subject, you should know that only quality work, constant improvement, patience and perseverance will help you excel. If you think you will learn all the subjects and not specialize in one, you may end up becoming a jack of all trades but master of none.

 

 

 

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Process of applying for Legal Internships: How to Make Your Profile Stand Out

Author: Rishima Rawat

Every law student wishes for an internship at her desired organisation. After all, internship is one of the most significant features of a law school education. It is not easy to secure an internship (unless you have contacts in the industry). The process may seem confusing initially. It requires careful research and persistence. In this article, we try to streamline the process for you. Here are the steps that you can follow when applying for a legal internship.

1. Shortlist organisations

Before applying to random firms and organisations, take a step back and think about where you would really like to intern. Research about your preferred firms/organisations, their practice areas and if they match your interest, then pursue an internship at that place. Location of the firm also matters. A firm in a bigger city will give you more exposure than that in a small one. Prepare a list of 6-7 firms where you would like to intern. It is better to send an internship application to select firms rather than mindlessly applying to every firm that you come across.

2. Prepare your CV 

Your CV is your marketing tool. Ensure that it is up to date. This does not mean that you have to include everything that you have done till that point of time. If you are a senior student, you will have more information (hopefully) to put down in your CV. If you write everything, the document will exceed the standard 2-page count. No organisation spends more than a few minutes (or a few seconds) going through CVs. So make it as concise as possible. Include all your important internships, publications, moots, debates, extra-curricular activities or paper presentations. Format it neatly and see that it is not longer than 2 pages.

3. Draft a Cover Letter 

 A well-drafted cover letter is your chance to show the firm/organisation your interests, work ethic and sincerity. It is not a reiteration of your CV. Use it to demonstrate your skills and interests. Talk about what you are interested in and why you are applying to the firm. A cover letter is also your chance to tell the firm that you are aware of its practice area and have been following its activities (such as a recent deal or case that it was involved in). State how you will contribute to the firm. Express your interest in interning with them and close with a statement thanking them for their time.

An important point here is to not send the same cover letter to multiple organisations. People there are experienced enough to understand whether you have seriously put any thought into it or just drafted a standard cover letter for multiple firms. You are bound to make embarrassing mistakes. For example, while applying for internships, a friend drafted a cover letter, the first paragraph of which stated:

I am a 3rd year law student from ABC university and would like to apply for an internship at your organisation, XYZ Law Offices in its New Delhi Office.”

He sent it to three firms. The problem was that he forgot to change the names of the firms. So a cover letter meant for XYZ firm also ended up in the mailbox of DEF firm with its office only in Mumbai and Bangalore. His habit of copy-pasting cover letters landed him in a soup. Needless to say, he did not hear from the firms.

 4. Email the organisation 

After you have prepared your CV and cover letter, email it to the firm. The address will be mentioned on the firm’s website. If there is no email-id provided, you can call the office and ask for the email address meant for internships. In case you have a senior working in the firm, you can also ask them for the email address to send your internship application to. Apart from the address, it is advisable to ask who the email should be addressed to. In most cases, it is the HR. But some firms do not have a dedicated HR team. The associates handle the internships. In any case, a direct salutation such as “Respected Mr. X/Ms. Y” will stand out instead of a plain “Respected Sir/Madam.” It also indicates that you have done some due diligence about the firm. 

5. Follow up 

This is an important but neglected part. Most students do not take it seriously. You have to follow up on your application. Call up the firm after a few days of sending your application if you do not hear from them. Some firms do reply via email. Most do not. In that case, it is your responsibility to call and ask them about the status of your application. Keep calling till you hear something definitive. But remember, to follow up does not mean to annoy the HR. Do not call them everyday. When you call for the first time and hear a standard “we will let you know” response, ask them when can you call again to inquire about your application status. A call once a week should suffice. Following up indicates your eagerness to intern with the organisation/firm. After a few calls, there is a chance that the HR will remember your name and your interest in the firm. Always be polite when inquiring and thank them for their time.

Conclusion 

The steps mentioned above aim at helping you navigate the process of applying for internships. You can always reach out to seniors to help you with your CV or cover letter. Keep in mind the fine points mentioned above (not copy-pasting cover letters, not being annoying when following up) and you shall be fine. We hope this article relieves some of your stress regarding the internship process.

 

 

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How Our IPR and Contract Drafting Courses Can Be the Building Stones to Your Successful Legal Practice?

Author: Rishima Rawat

The field of Intellectual Property (IP) law is an interesting and lucrative one. IP law offers legal protection to creative works. The aim of this protection is to reward the creators for their efforts and encourage innovation. The types of IP include copyright, trademarks, patents and designs. These are exclusive territorial rights and may vary depending on the jurisdiction. They are very valuable and can be licensed for a fee. This commercial aspect makes them very lucrative. Companies, especially startups, have been monetising their IP to their advantage. There has been a rapid growth in the number of IP applications filed in the last few years. This can be attributed to the rise of innovative startups coupled with major leaps in technology.

The IP ecosystem provides numerous opportunities for legal professionals. There are various avenues that a legal professional can pursue. For example, if you are interested in patents, you can specialise in patents and become a patent analyst. There are many law firms in India that have IP law as their primary practice area. With constant innovation and new companies realising the need to protect their IP, this field offers interesting prospects and growth opportunities.

Another area of law that never takes a backseat is contract drafting. It is not really a special area per se but a very vital skill that every lawyer must have. Contracts form the backbone of a business transaction. Thus, highly skilled lawyers who can draft strong contracts are sought by every business entity. If you have an interest in IP and are deft at drafting contracts, you can very well establish your own legal practice. To give you a strong foundation in these subjects, we at Enhelion offer a wide range of online legal courses for you to choose from. Here is a list of online courses, categorised according to the subject, that you can choose to strengthen your knowledge.

Before you browse through the courses, let us tell you about the special characteristics of online courses at Enhelion. All of them are self-paced- you can complete them according to your convenience. They are taught by industry practitioners who have years of experience behind them. You will get lifetime access to the material provided in the course. On successful completion, you will also receive a book on the subject, authored by the course faculty and published by Bloomsbury India.

Now, the courses:

Intellectual Property Law and Management: Our courses on IP law and management offer a detailed understanding of the IP ecosystem and the basic concepts of IP law. We offer a certificate course in IP law and management. It explains the fundamental concepts of IP and the protection offered by law. It also discusses commercialisation and valuation of IP. If you want to gain in-depth knowledge of the subject, there is a diploma course available. It is an advanced version of the above-mentioned certificate course. It explains, inter alia, the strategic issues that arise in commercialisation of IP, licensing, franchising and management of IP, its valuation methodology and compliance issues.

Merely having a knowledge of IP law isn’t enough. IP has to be registered in order to be protected. To equip you with practical skills of registering an IP, we offer a certificate course in IP processes and application. This course teaches you about the process involved in registering a copyright, patent, industrial design and trademark.

IP Contracts: As we already know, contract drafting is an essential skill for any lawyer. For an IP lawyer, it is also very important to know the special clauses that are included in IP contracts. Our course on IP contracts provides you with this skillset. It explains clauses pertinent to IP contracts such as confidentiality, software and relevant license clauses, assignment of IP and research and development.

Design Law: The first thing that we notice about an article is probably its design- its shape, pattern and colours. Thus, design is an important IP that is protected under the Designs Act, 2000. We offer a certificate course that discusses the international conventions as well as the Indian law on designs and their protection. This course also deals with registration and cancellation of designs.

Trademarks: IP law does not involve only lawyers. It also has other professionals such as agents. You can also become a trademark agent with the help of our certificate course. A trademark agent is responsible for filing trademark applications, oppose cases and help with other aspects, including the legal ones, of trademark. To become a patent agent, one has to qualify an examination conducted by the Trademark Registry. Our course offers all the help that one may require for becoming a trademark agent. It covers topics such as trademark filing, assignment and contested proceedings.

Media and IP: IP and media are closely linked. The explosion of new media platforms has led to a constant flow of content that is rapidly consumed by users. But when posting content, one needs to be aware of the media regulations as well as IP issues that may arise by sharing such media. To give you a holistic understanding of these two subjects and how they interact with each other, we offer a diploma course on media, IP and the law.

 IP and the Internet: This is a unique course which discusses the role that the internet plays in IP management. It covers topics such as the new media, e-commerce, copyright and trademarks in these sectors. It also discusses internet-specific issues such as domain name and digital brand management.

 IP and Art Law: While an art can be protected under copyright, there are also other rights known as the artist’s rights. These rights belong to the ‘author’ of the work as a creator. To understand the scope of these rights, we offer a diploma in art law and IP. This is a detailed course that discusses the creative process, artist’s rights and the underlying issues and licensing and management of created works. It also explains copyright in architectural expression and dimensional arts.

IP and Technology Law: Recently, there has been a lot of discussion on data privacy and cyberspace in general. More businesses are joining the online space to reach their target consumers and promote their goods and services. It is important for law students as well as legal professionals to understand the cyberspace and its impact on IP. Our meticulously prepared diploma in technology law and IP provides you with the required knowledge and understanding. It discusses issues such as data privacy, corporate compliance, legal risks when promoting a business online and technology transfer and IP rights.

Entertainment and IP Law and Policy: The entertainment sphere has expanded dramatically and now includes films, television, radio, music, streaming services (hello Netflix and Prime Video), online gaming and advertising. All these are connected with IP law in some manner. To understand their interaction, we offer a certificate course dealing with entertainment and IP law. It covers all the laws relevant to the entertainment industry. It discusses the issues that have emerged with the rampant use of social media. It also explains concepts such as recovery litigation, criminal litigation and alternate dispute resolution.

Conclusion

 The above courses have been developed keeping the recent legal and technological developments in mind. They offer you a complete understanding of the IP ecosystem in India and how it has adapted with the recent changes. There are courses that teach substantive law in great detail. There are also courses that address the practicality of the field, such as IP contracts and trademark examination. The practice-oriented nature of these courses will help you navigate processes routinely encountered by IP specialists. The knowledge gained from these courses can help you build a strong foundation in IP law and practice. Once you are thorough will the law and its procedures, you can start your own practice. Since you will get lifetime access to the courses, you can always revisit the course whenever you feel like.

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Is Aviation Industry Eco-friendly?

In this grooming economy, the aviation industry has been witnessing its bright day. The Aviation industry has seen tremendous growth. The passenger traffic rate has risen by 12.47% in the Financial year 2015. Currently, India is the ninth-largest Aviation Industry, which is expected to be third by 2020 and the largest by 2030. However, there are issues that this industry should tackle, to protect its duty.

The world doesn’t revolve around abundance. On this planet, all benefits are limited and their availability is shrinking with the passage of time along with the pace of its consumption. It is a Fundamental duty, by Article 51A(g), that every individual to endeavor to protect all life forms and environment. This blooming industry should give these environmental issues importance as a fundamental duty.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

  • Aircraft Noise –

Noise Pollution has been an age-old issue in the field of aviation. Humungous engine fixed to elevate even huge aircraft carrying hundred in them creates huge noise, which can even make a person deaf. The issue is parochial as the noise disturbance is actually nil when the aircraft flies at a higher altitude. However, noise disturbance is maximum at the airport, and people residing near an airport area. 

Therefore, the ICAO has adopted a resolution, which takes a balanced approach to noise management. The resolution the moderate noise level, which is prescribed to all the contracting members. Additionally, requires the aerodromes to be away from the dwelling area.

  1. Degradation of Air Quality

The aviation industry has been one of the crucial reasons for the degradation of air quality. The time of impact is minimum, only when it is flying at a level below 10,000 ft.; however, it emits more than the emission caused due to combustion other vehicles. The main attributing agents are; oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, Unburnt Hydrocarbons, Sulphur Dioxides and fumes, which are deteriorating the air quality. This emission of greenhouse gases is named as ‘carbon footprint’.

  • Climatic Change –

Climate has been changing, degrading would be more appropriate. The people of this world are trying to save non-renewable resources. The Aviation Industry has a small impact on this radical change, but ever-increasing impact. The impact is growing with sprawling demand for air transport. With the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, saving energy and stopping climatic degradation has become an implication.

The impact of aircraft is more direct than any other source of emission, because of the transport at a high altitude. The oxides emitted from these enormous vehicles can alter the balance in the ecosystem and become a vital reason for cloud formation. This is a vicious circle where the aviation industry is not just degrading the environment, but also making it cumbersome to transport by air, due intolerable whether conditions.

  1. Third Party Risk

It has been seen and proved that the rate of accidents on air is very less. A person in the flight is safe, and the Accident Investigation team is preventing any such occurrence. The point is the passenger and the aircraft relation is not an environmental issue. However, the impact of the aircraft caused to the others, third party, is an environmental issue. The probability of accidents of individuals by an aircraft as the passenger is comparatively less than probability as a third party. 

The environmental impact of a growing airport needs to calculated by the authorities, including the land-use restriction, near the aerodrome and the over-flight risk. The wholesome impact of the airport should be calibrated in relation to environmental effects.

  • Fuel Consumption –

A working paper on Aviation and Environment cites that, the fuel consumption has increased by 10-12% including the operation including those on the ground. The study suggests that by 2036, fuel consumption is expected to rise up to 38% domestic transport and 62% in international transport out of the total globe fuel consumption. The globe is trying to save all sources of energy, particularly non-renewable resource, however the aviation industry alone, if allowed at this rate, can alone wipe-out the entire fuel resources.

The main question which bothers every individual – are safe in the era of the Aviation Industry? Although this question, has been the subject matter of many meetings and many committees have been established. The authorities of various states, in the International Air Transport Association and in the ICAO, these topics have been tackled with various sets of policies. However, at the end of the day, the effectiveness of these meeting and policies are yet to see the light of a reformed day.

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Is freedom to fly a Fundamental Right?

An Indian Historical perspective

The desire of a man is equal to the desire of a bird…to fly as high one can.

It was 1909 when initiated the engine of their invention that crystallized every person’s ever-lasted desire to fly into reality. After the invention in 1909, it was 1911 when the first flight in India initiated by Henry Piquet. This desire to fly was comprehended to be something that the elite mass can rejoice. This became the reason due to which there is no freedom to fly enshrined in the Constitution of our country, nor in any of the countries.

The concept of fundamental right is every closely connected to human rights. Fundamentally speaking Part III of the constitution consists of basic human rights, which is attached to the person since the time of its birth. So, the next question is whether freedom to fly a human right? Of course, not! The reason being, the desire was only fulfilled with the invention of air-plane and is not necessary for human existence. Therefore, how can this freedom be a basic human right? This rationale could be a justiciable thought as to why didn’t draftsmen add freedom to fly in the Constitution.

“Stagnancy risks our promises” Stagnancy is understood to be mutually exclusive to development. So with the advent of new technology, the law has to change and mold itself in a manner to fit the structure of the society appropriately. In order to maintain the dynamic nature of law, the Constituent assembly kept a reservoir that would help the law to maintain pace with technology. In Unnikrishnan v State of Andhra Pradesh, the judges of the Apex Court clearly said that Article 21 has a negative notation with the sole reason that the meaning and the ambit of the provision could reason well beyond the zenith of the man’s foresight or reasons. The courts have used this to include many rights into the garb of right to life, which is again a fundamental right. The would ‘liberty’ has canons of interpretation which aided the Supreme Court to add rights like; right to livelihood, right to shelter, right against sexual harassment at workplace, right to reputation, right to privacy and importantly, right to travel abroad

In Satwant Singh Sawhney v D. Ramarathnam, the court recognised the freedom to travel abroad to be an integral part of personal liberty as mentioned in Article 21. The court in Maneka Gandhi v Union of India and another, reiterated the very same ratio as laid down in Satwant Singh’s case, the court said that with the developing society the law has to develop the law has to evolve simultaneously. The freedom to travel is enshrined under article 19 of the Constitution but within the territory. However, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (hereinafter referred to as UDHR) declares that every man has the right to leave any country even his own and return back as well. India being a signatory member of the UDHR, it becomes duty-bound under Article 51, which recommends allegiance towards the International convention, to follow the convention. So, multiple authority on the same point hits the last nail to the coffin to make the freedom to travel abroad a fundamental. 

The meaning of the words ‘personal liberty’ is wide when to include the liberty to choose the mode of transport the person seeks. An era where time is money, the consumption of time has become the object of every individual, hence the aviation industry is booming. So, this clarifies that every person has the liberty to choose to travel abroad by air. Therefore, in conjunction, it is understood that the person has the liberty to travel abroad by air. Empirically, freedom to fly has been recognized subjected to the procedure established by law.

Recently, its seen that the Madras High Court has referred to Maneka Gandhi’s ratio when the Professor of Madras University was asked to deposit her passport without a due reason behind the same. The court, additionally, said the right to travel is a fundamental right available even to a criminal because a criminal is no different from any other person. The fundamental right does not cease to exist just for the reason that they are criminals.

Conclusively, it can be understood that the freedom to fly is now a recognized fundamental right.