Blog Intellectual Property Law

Theories of Intellectual Property Rights

By: Vallabhi Rastogi


With the introduction and implementation of ‘Digital India’, major segment of the Indian population has shifted to undertaking online transactions and availing the services offered over the internet. This shift is also because the Government has offered additional benefits for online transactions so as to promote digitization. This increased use of internet has largely exposed Intellectual Property to several risks since it has made “illegitimate copying and reproducing quite easier.”[1] According to World Intellectual Property Organization, “Intellectual Property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce”. Intellectual property being intangible needs to be protected by law in the same sense as corporeal property and therefore, copyright, patent, trademark, trade secrets are some mechanisms under intellectual property rights (IPR) that protect novel innovation from being imitated without permission.

IPR is not a recent concept rather it has evolved a lot subsequent to the industrial revolution in Europe when industrial advancement was at its peak. However, codification of laws relating to intellectual property started in the 19th century. Since then, “IPR have been instilling confidence among creators that their intellectual property is protected, thereby encouraging further innovations.”[2]

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

IPR has played a significant role in keeping original ideas and technical productions safe from being illegally copied and manipulated and has fostered creativity and innovations. In order to safeguard such intangible property, many industries across the globe have resorted to IP rights. Sports, Information Technology, Fashion industry, Entertainment, Biotechnology, Pharmaceutical industry are some of those sectors that have readily adapted IPR with the view of legally “safeguarding ownership, thereby, providing distinct identity”[3] and encouraging innovators to conceive and create more ideas.

Intellectual Property Rights acts as a motivation by instilling a sense of trust and ownership in the creators as their creations are safe even when available over the internet. Considering the technological advancement and innovative creations in the current times, it has become a necessity to legally protect them and therefore, enforcement of intellectual property rights backs such inventions and artworks.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 



Intellectual Property and the importance of IPR traces its origin back to and relevance from the theories of renowned philosophers such as John Locke, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Jeremy Bentham, Georg Hegel, etc. The ideologies and theories propounded by them act as the supporting pillar of the jurisprudential aspect of intellectual property rights. The theories of IPR that this paper will talk about are

  1. The Natural Rights Theory
  2. Ethic and Reward Theory
  3. Utilitarian or Incentive Theory
  4. Personhood Theory



This theory is fundamentally based on John Locke’s concept that an owner possesses a natural right over the things that he produces with the help of his own labor and efforts, either physical or intellectual. Therefore, ownership arises from the labor and innovation of person creating it. Locke believed that “individuals are entitled to control the fruits of their own labor. In his perspective, a person, who cultivates crops by using his own labor or creates a new invention by putting his efforts, naturally obtains property rights,”[4] merely by the virtue of adding his own labor. Similarly, the natural rights theory of intellectual property reflects that an individual naturally acquires ownership of the artwork that he creates or literary work that he authors because he added his own intellectual labor in it.

Locke based his theory on the idea that when a person puts his labor in an unowned object, his labor gets amalgamated with the new object that is then created, which cannot be separated without causing damage to the novel creation thus made. The creator then acquires natural rights over the object in which he applied his intellectual labor. Once the person acquires the property right, his original creation is protected from being used, transferred or manipulated by another person. Any such breach of the intellectual property right of the creator / owner would be against the law.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


An owner or creator is legally protected under IPR for his novel creations by granting him exclusive rights over the work he produces. These exclusive rights include the right to enjoy the property, exclude others from enjoying it and to dispose the property in any manner he likes. The creator is rewarded for contributing to the welfare of the society by producing his work, however, when an ethical or moral perspective is involved while rewarding it falls under this theory of intellectual property rights. This theory emanates from the concept that granting exclusive rights on an original work are “an expression of gratitude to an author for doing more than the society expects or feels that they are obliged to do.”[5] It implies that other than the profit or remuneration for his production, if any, the individual should also be granted exclusive legal rights over the property so produced since he contributed for the betterment of community.

Ethic and Reward Theory suggests that for producing the original work, the creator might have been given some reward in form of royalty or otherwise, and then the creator should be rewarded again with exclusive legal rights over his novel production since he contributed something for ‘social utility’ that would benefit the society at large. The thinkers supporting this theory believe that the individual who put his intellectual labor for social good must be fairly compensated with his contribution being respected and this can be done by granting him exclusive rights. These exclusive rights act as moral and ethical rewards since the creator would be legally protected under IPR.

Critiques against this theory have contended that just like a person is not punished twice for doing something offensive that causes displeasure to the people similarly, a person who has contributed to the society should also not be rewarded twice.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


Utilitarianism is “greatest good for the greatest number” which basically implies happiness of the maximum number of people. Therefore, the conduct which causes happiness of a large number of people should be appreciated and promoted whereas the conduct which causes displeasure to the society should be avoided or discouraged. Propounded by Jeremy Bentham and John S. Mill, the concept of utilitarianism helps in socio-cultural and economical progress. Likewise, while inferring it in intellectual property utilitarian concept plays a significant role.

As and when a person creates a product or there is technological innovation within a community, the society benefits from the advancement and progress. Since this progress benefits and causes happiness of the society at large, such innovation and creations are to be promoted and encouraged.  Such encouragement can be done by granting exclusive rights to the creator as he has worked hard to empower the society and cause pleasure to the maximum number of people. This will not only create a sense of motivation to put in more efforts but would also make him believe that he and his work are rightfully respected and recognized. Therefore, the authorities or administration are expected to grant such rights and recognize their efforts.

However, while creating and designing the work, the cost of production might be too high. So, the incentive given to the creator might not be sufficient enough to cover the costs incurred. This might discourage the creator as well, thus, preventing him to further experiment and produce.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


This jurisprudential theory was propounded by famous thinkers like Immanuel Kant and Georg Hegel. Personhood theory of intellectual property rights states that while applying labor to produce some work, a person also incorporates some part of his personality in the creation. An “individual’s personality growth is inherent”[6] and thereby, constitutes an integral part of the creative works. Since exclusive property rights are granted over the creative works and original productions, the creator also gains rights over the personality that is developed during the process. This right to “protect the development of personality extends to material things”[7] as well.

These rights emphasize more on preserving and safeguarding interests related to personality rather than merely protecting the monetary interests. Other than the right to fiscal advantage, the maker should also be given the right to safeguard his personality infused with the creation. Intellectual Property Rights should include protection of both creativity and every other thing incorporated in it.

There exists a loophole in this theory if we consider the fact that once the original work is produced, it is distinct from the creator. As the work becomes available to the public, it is up to them as how they receive and treat it. Therefore, it is not dependent on the person creating it.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


It is a well-established fact that Intellectual Property Rights have been quite effective and successful in protecting the novel creations that have facilitated in the upliftment and growth of any nation. They have bolstered and encouraged the society to produce more. It is quite evident that in this age of technological development and increased creation of artworks, competitiveness has found its way. As a result, people might indulge in unfair practices to manipulate or copy other’s creations or use them illegitimately to create something new. To mitigate such incidences, intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets have found a permanent place. It ensures that there is no unhealthy competition or any kind of unfair practices. Intellectual Property rights acts as incentives to the individuals who are in the field of research and experimentation. Such encouragements give them a feeling of recognition. These rights not only provide ownership right but also recognize and reward them for their efforts and labor. It protects the economic interests of creators as well.

Each theory has its own approach and perspective of inferring intellectual property rights. There is no specific right or wrong with regards to a theory. Different individuals might relate and favor different theories.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Rights with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

There has been a recent surge in the requirement and use of IPR laws in India. Indian Courts of Law have been reasonably strict in regulating intellectual property rights and awarding punitive damages to deter further infringement. “Prioritizing IPR has become necessary for socio-economic development.”[8]

Based on these theories there are some loopholes and incongruities which need to be looked into. Moreover, with changing times and continuous advancement, there can be several challenges which the existing IPR laws might have to cope with. The coming years would be very essential to evaluate the progress and improvisation of domestic IPR laws in comparison with the international ones. It would be interesting to see how IPR laws unfold in the upcoming years.

[1] The Effects of the Internet on Intellectual Property Rights, SACRAMENTO INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW BLOG (Mar 27, 2017).,protected%20to %20the%20fullest%20extent.

[2] Varun Sharma & Gautam Kumar, Patent Litigation – Trend and Development, CHAMBERS AND PARTNERS, (2020).

[3]Singh and Associates, India: Role of IPR in Sports, MONDAQ (May 22, 2019).

[4] Adam Moore & Ken Himma, Intellectual Property, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Oct 10, 2018)


[6] Jane Secker, Considering Theories of Intellectual Property on World IP Day, UK COPYRIGHT LITERACY, (2018),

[7] Mikhalien du Bois, Justificatory Theories for Intellectual Property Viewed Through the Constitutional Prism, PER/PELJ (2018).

[8] Varun Sharma & Gautam Kumar, Patent Litigation – Trend and Development, CHAMBERS AND PARTNERS, (2020).

Criminal Law

Plea Bargaining in India and USA -A Comparative Study

By: Muskan Sharma

Concept of Plea Bargaining

Plea Bargaining is a process where the accused is asked to plead guilty in exchange of the judge acting lenient while awarding punishment or considering the seriousness of the offence. It is derived from the Latin phrase ‘Nolo Contendere’ which means ‘I do not wish to contend’ i.e. a plea of ‘No contest’. Plea Bargaining is a situation where the accused admits that the charges levelled against him are true and that he will not contend a query to the Court to decide over his guilt.

The concept of Plea Bargaining was not originally introduced into the Indian legal system but into USA. However, the Law Commission’s efforts promoted the insertion of the provisions concerning Plea Bargaining via its 142nd, 154th, and 177th reports. A new chapter on ‘Plea Bargaining’ was introduced into the Criminal Procedure Code based on the recommendations of the Law Commission for certain offences.

There are three types of Plea Bargaining namely, Sentence Bargaining, Charge Bargaining, and Fact Bargaining.

The concept of ‘Plea Bargaining’ is operative in both India and USA but the practice is not identical. However, it is pertinent to know about the concept of Plea Bargaining and landmark cases associated to it in both legal systems separately for a fruitful comparison between the two.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

Plea Bargaining in USA

In USA, the accused can put forward one of the three pleas i.e. Guilty, Not Guilty, and Nolo Contendere. Under the doctrine of Nolo Contendere, the plea is treated as an implied confession of guilt or that the Court will decide on the point of his guilt.

However, the Court is not bound to accept such a plea of the accused. It is the discretionary power of the Court to either accept or reject such plea, considering the facts and circumstances of each case presented to it. The Court is supposed to ensure that the plea should be put forward voluntarily by the accused and absence of duress and coercion. The accused must receive the protection of secrecy. Plea Bargaining gained momentum due to the overcrowding in prisons of USA.

Landmark Cases in USA

  • State exrel Clark Adams[1]

In the instant case, the Court explained the doctrine of ‘Nolo Contendere’. The Court held that the plea of ‘Nolo Contendere’ also known as ‘Plea of Nolvut’ means the accused does not wish to contend.

  • United States Risfield[2]

The Court observed that in a criminal action in which an application for Plea Bargaining has been made, the adjudication by the Court in relation to the plea of guilty is not necessary. However, the Court may impose sentence on the accused person immediately.

  • Lott United States[3]

The Court held that the plea being tantamount to an admission of guilt, is not conviction but merely a determination of guilt.

  • Bordenkircher Haynes[4]

In this case, the US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Plea Bargaining while awarding life imprisonment to the accused person who rejected to plead guilty for imprisonment for a term of five years. The Supreme Court observed a slight possibility that the accused person may be coerced to choose among the lesser of the two punishments.

The Supreme Court further observed that there is no probability of coercion or duress if the accused person is free to either accept or reject the offer made by the prosecutor during the negotiation process for Plea Bargaining.

  • Brady United States[5]

In the instant case, the Supreme Court held that the consensus reached out of fear that the trial will result into death penalty will not make the process of Plea Bargaining illegitimate. If the process of Plea Bargaining has been properly conducted and controlled, it is legitimate.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

Plea Bargaining in India

Section 265A to 265L (Chapter XXI A) of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 (hereinafter referred to as “CrPC”) contain provisions concerning ‘Plea Bargaining’.

Section 265A of CrPC provides who is eligible to take benefit of Plea Bargaining. According to the provisions of Section 265A, any accused may take the course of Plea Bargaining except the accused charged with offences that are punishable with death or life imprisonment or imprisonment for a term more than seven years. Also, an accused charged with an offence against a woman or a child below fourteen years of age or affecting the socio-economic conditions of the country, is also not allowed to take the course of Plea Bargaining.

Section 265B provides for the procedure to file an application for Plea Bargaining. The application must contain all details of the case accompanied by a sworn affidavit. Afterwards, the Court may examine the accused to satisfy itself of the fact that the accused has filed such application voluntarily. If the accused satisfies the Court of the voluntariness, the Court provides some time for the mutual satisfactory disposition of the case. If in case, the accused fails to satisfy the Court that he has filed the application voluntarily or that he has been convicted with the same offence previously, the Court may proceed from the stage the application has been filed before it.

Section 265C contains guidelines for mutually satisfactory disposition of the case. It states that the Court shall issue notice to the public prosecutor, if the case instituted on a police report, the accused, and the victim to participate in a meeting to reach at a satisfactory disposition of the case. However, the Court must ensure that the process be completed voluntarily and the accused may participate with his pleader, if he desires so.

Section 265D to Section 265I contain provisions concerning the report of mutually satisfactory disposition, disposal of the case, judgment of the Court, finality of the judgment, power of the Court in plea bargaining, and period of detention already undergone by the accused be set off against the sentence of imprisonment.

Landmark Cases in India

  • Murlidhar Meghraj Loya State of Maharashtra[6]

In the instant case, J. Krishna Iyer criticized the practice of Plea Bargaining. He observed that the Trial Magistrate is burdened with cases and hence, approves the secret dealings of Plea Bargaining. He further observed, “The businessman culprit, confronted by a sure prospect of the agony and ignominy of tenancy of a prison cell, ‘trades out‘ of the situation, the bargain being a plea of guilt, coupled with a promise of ‘no jail‘. These advance arrangements please everyone except the distant victim, the silent society…”

  • Kachhia Patel Shantilal Koderlal State of Gujarat and Anr.[7]

In this case as well, the Supreme Court criticized the concept of Plea Bargaining. The Court held that Plea Bargaining is an unconstitutional process as it encourages corruption and pollutes the concept of justice.

  • State of Uttar Pradesh Chandrika[8]

The Supreme Court held that it is a settled law that a criminal case cannot be disposed off merely on the basis of Plea Bargaining. It was further observed that it is the constitutional duty of the Court to consider the merits of the case and award appropriate sentence despite the confession of the guilt by the accused person.  Mere confession of the guilt by the accused person cannot be a reason for awarding lesser punishment.

However, there has been a shift in the judicial thinking with the passage of time.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

  • State of Gujarat Natwar Harchandji Thakor[9]

In the instant case, the Gujarat High Court favoured the process of Plea Bargaining and held that the object is to provide easy, cheap, and expeditious resolution of disputes including the trial in criminal cases and that it prevents the pendency and delay in disposal of the administration of justice.

  • Vijay Moses Das CBI[10]

In the instant case, a person was accused of supplying of sub-standardized material to ONGC at a wrong port and thereby, causing ONGC to suffer huge losses. CBI completed the investigation and started prosecution against the accused person under Section 420, 468, and 471 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. The accused person took the course of Plea Bargaining. But the Trial Court rejected the application of Plea Bargaining on the ground that it was not accompanied by an affidavit as stipulated under Section 265B and no compensation was fixed. However, the Uttarakhand High Court directed the Trial Court to accept the application of Plea Bargaining.

  • Thippaswamy State of Karnataka[11]

In the instant case, the Supreme Court held that inducing an accused person to plead guilty under any assurance or promise is unconstitutional for being violative of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. It further observed that in such cases, the Court must set aside the conviction and direct the case to the Trial Court to give accused person the right to defend himself and if found guilty, the Trial Court may award appropriate punishment to him.

Plea Bargaining in India and USA: Comparative Analysis

Though the concept of ‘Plea Bargaining’ as adopted into the Indian legal system has been borrowed from USA, it is still distinguishable from the operation of ‘Plea Bargaining’ in USA. Following are some of the major differences that exist between the concept of ‘Plea Bargaining’ as operative in India and USA:

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

  1. Nature of Offence

In USA, there is no provision as to the prohibition on plea bargaining in certain offences. An accused person charged with any offence may take the course of Plea Bargaining. However, in India, there are exceptions as contained in Section 265A. Following categories of accused persons cannot take the course of Plea Bargaining in India:

  1. Accused person charged with an offence punishable with death
  2. Accused person charged with an offence punishable with life imprisonment
  3. Accused person charged with an offence punishable with imprisonment of more than seven years
  4. Accused person charged with an offence against women
  5. Accused person charged with an offence against a child below fourteen years of age
  6. Accused person charged with an offence that affects socio-economic conditions of the country
  7. Role of Victim in Proceedings

In Indian Law, the victim has an important role in the proceedings of Plea Bargaining. The victim has the power to refuse or veto if unable to reach a mutually satisfactory disposition. However, in USA, the victim does not have an active role to play in the proceedings of Plea Bargaining.

  1. Mechanisms available for enforceability

In USA, an application for Plea Bargaining is filed only after the negotiation process between the accused person and the prosecutor is complete. However, in India, the negotiation process with the accused person does not even start before the filing of the application of the Plea Bargaining to ensure that the application of Plea Bargaining is filed voluntarily by the accused. Therefore, there is less chance of the accused being coerced or secret dealings for filing an application for Plea Bargaining.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

  1. Discretion of the Judge

In USA, the judge does not exercise discretionary power while accepting an application for Plea Bargaining. However, in Indian legal system, the judge has discretionary powers to either reject or accept an application for Plea Bargaining filed by the accused person.

  1. Finality

Under the Indian legal system, if the Court thinks the punishment awarded in any case of Plea Bargaining is insufficient or is guarded by unfair circumstances, it may be set aside either by an SLP under Article 136 or a writ petition under Articles 226 and 227 of the Indian Constitution. However, in USA, it reaches its finality.



The conviction rate via Plea Bargaining in the USA is as high as nearly 90% whereas in India, it is not even close to 10% of the criminal cases. This disparity exists due to the differences that exist between the concept of Plea Bargaining as practiced in USA and India.

Though the conviction rate in India is way too low as compared to the conviction rate in USA, it is effective in ensuring that the application of Plea Bargaining has been filed voluntarily. Justice may be delayed but must not be denied. In India, an accused person does not take the course of Plea Bargaining to choose the lesser among the punishments but is a voluntary action. Hence, it is high probability that an innocent person will not be awarded punishment in India by way of Plea Bargaining.

However, speedy disposal of cases is the need of the hour. Hence, the legislature must go for reforms and provide adequate infrastructure to the judiciary to reduce the number of undertrial prisoners.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

[1] 363 US 807

[2] 340 US 914

[3] 367 US 421

[4] 434 US 357 (1978)

[5] 397 US 742 (1970)

[6] AIR 1976 SC 1929

[7] 1980 Cr LJ 553

[8] 2000 Cr LJ 384

[9] (2005) Cr LJ 2957

[10] Crl. (Misc.) Application No. 1037/2006

[11] (1983) 1 SCC 194

Intellectual Property Law

Compulsory Licensing in India

By: Rajat Nischal

Prominently known as World Intellectual Property Organization [WIPO] elucidates ‘Patent’ as an arranged right specifically for inventions. Lawfully, a patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides, in general, a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem. To get a patent, technical information about the invention must be disclosed to the public in a patent application [1]. An individual who owns/possesses the ownership of the patent is hereinafter referred to as, patent owner/ patentee. Officially, the patent owner shall possess an exclusive and special right on his invention for a limited duration of 20 long years, moreover, the patentee also holds an extraordinary right of eliminating individuals/ groups from using his/her patented product without a formalized permission. Notwithstanding the aforesaid, under specific crucial circumstances and situations, a compulsory license to make use of a patented product may be given to a third party. This impression of “compulsory licensing in India” has been given in Chapter XVI of the Indian Patents Act, 1970 [2].

Learn more about Intellectual Property Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


Transmogrifying the true concept of compulsory licenses to a very simple and layman’s language would make us understand that these licenses are authorizations provided to a foreign/ alien party by the hon’ble controller general in order to make the usage of a specific patented creation without the approval of the patent owner. The outlines of compulsory licensing are very known at both, international and national levels with the reference cited in TRIPS Agreement for former and Indian Patent Act, 1970[1] for the latter one. Nevertheless, the presence of several preconditions is truly enshrined under sections 84-92 of the Indian Patent Act, 1970 [2] which stands as crucial to be satisfied if a compulsory license is to be issued in favor of a third party.

As enshrined under Section 84 of the Indian Patent Act[3], any individual, notwithstanding to the factum of possession of the license of the concerned patent, can submit a humble appeal to the hon’ble controller general requesting for the permission of compulsory license on expiry of three years if, the following bullets are satisfied;

  • In the case where the lawfully protected invention fails to work in India
  • In the case where the rational requisites of the public have not been fulfilled
  • In the case where the invention is offered at an unfordable price.

Moreover, as enshrined under section 92 of the Indian Patent Act, 1970 [4]a suo moto cognizance may also be issued to the compulsory licenses by the will of the hon’ble controller general if there is either a “national emergency” or “extreme urgency” or in cases of “public non-commercial use”. The hon’ble controller may additionally take into account certain more aspects like of the nature of the patented invention and, The Controller takes into account some more aspects like the nature of the invention, the competence of the applicant to use the creation for public welfare and benefit nevertheless, the absolute discretion to grant the compulsory license falls with the hon’ble controller general. [5]

Learn more about Intellectual Property Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


First of its kind of compulsory license by a patent office in India was done on an appreciable date of 9th march of 2012 to Natco Pharma for the generic production of Bayer Corporation’s Nexavar (medication used for treating Kidney and Liver Cancer). Bayer Corporation’s Nexavar sold the medications for an exorbitant and superfluous price costing Rs. 2,80,000 for one month’s dosage. The Natco Pharma was assenting to sell the same dosage at a sum of Rs. 9,000 which is tremendously less than the former price of the medication (as offered by Bayer’s). With a major price drop, people belonging to lower-income groups became eligible to afford the drug created for the welfare of the people. Taking merit of the aforesaid, all the three bullets of section 84 of the Indian Patent Act, 1970 [6] are satisfied and henceforth, the pronouncement was produced for the profit of people.

In several other cases related to the issuance of compulsory licenses in the pharmaceutical industry, the Hon’ble controller general rejected the plea for numerous reasons. The supposed was done due to;

  • failing to prove prima facie case
  • failure to prove positive public use of the creation
  • not applying for a license of patent prior to applying for a compulsory license.[7]

It is a strong belief in the legal facet of patents that getting a creation registered under the law does not absolutely fall out adequate moreover, the judiciary must understand the appearance of the entire case, submissions by the patent holder, and the defense of the same.[8] In few case laws, the Indian courts have relined that the regulations and rules contrary to the anti-competitive practices in the Competition Act, 2002[9] and the obligatory rules of compulsory licensing in the Indian Patent Act, 1970 [10]are not in exclusion of each other; rather, on the flipped side of the coin, they are to be read together. The doubt over the choice of anti-competitive practices may perhaps also be thought out by the Hon’ble controller general. Nevertheless, in case the Competition Commission of India [CCI] treasures that the patent holder’s behaviour is anti-competitive and the said attains an utmost conclusiveness then, the Hon’ble controller will also move further to issue estoppel-the patentee would be estopped from contending to the contrary.[11]

Learn more about Intellectual Property Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

The rational legal approach in regard to the grant of compulsory license states, the regulations and obligatory rules exists for a sole purpose of people’s wellbeing and the said shall not be used for any other purpose which may directly or indirectly reduce the positive rights of the patentee. A lucid balance of rights/ regulations and, the execution of the same shall justly exist.


The laws referring the compulsory licensing should be exercised rationally, cautiously and wisely because it stands straight as an exception to the sober rule of patent. The regulations are not absolute in nature but rather are partially aligned were, neither complete patent protection is provided, nor it is denied wholly. Because of its application in the medical field, the pharmaceutical companies in order to protect their product from compulsory licensing are required to price their patented module in harmony to the financial status of the nation. And owing to the above stated fact, the concept of compulsory licensing as a law has indeed upshifted as an expectational hope for the financially challenged patients. Bearing in mind the financial conditions of India, compulsory licensing as an obligatory regulation is unquestionably a major necessity.

Learn more about Intellectual Property Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

But then again, the distress faces out when the warm ray of light is flashed towards the contest of the two flanks, the first where it has to obey the international norms of patent protection and the other in which all the arrangements are done in order to safeguard and protect the people of the nation.

[1] Ibid

[2] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, § 84-92, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).

[3] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, § 84, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).

[4] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, § 92, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).


[6] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, § 84, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).


[8] Franz Xaver Huemer v. New Yash Engineers, AIR 1997 Delhi 79, 1996 (25) (India).

[9] The Competition Act, 2002, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (31st March, 2003).

[10] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).

[11] Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. v. Rajesh Bansal and Others, MANU/DE/2436/2018 (India).


[2] The Indian Patent Act, 1970, The Gazette of India, pt. II sec. 1 (19th September, 1970).

Learn more about Intellectual Property Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 


Civil Courts System In India and their Jurisdiction

By: Rajat Nischal 


The Constitution of Republic of India in its very structuring puts down certain framework in respect to the Indian Judicial System. The administration of our country is sensed upon the federal system of governance making the dispersal of power between the Centre and the States. Even so, the Constitution of India establishes a single integrated judicial system encompassing courts to administer both Central and State commandments. The apex court of India located in the capital of the country, New Delhi is the supreme court i.e., the court of highest appeal. The second most authority after the apex body are the various High Courts at the state level which function for one or more number of states. furthermore, down the line after these major bodies, establishments of the district and subordinate courts also prevails at the lower tier levels in the territory of India. In order to extend the functioning of the Courts, there exist specialised tribunals to adjudicate sector specific claims such as labour, consumer, service matter disputes.

The civil court system of India is one of the most primogenital legal systems in the world history.  The respectful plays a significant element of the inheritance India proclaimed from the colonial rule in the regime of Britishers. The contemporary framework of the legal system in India is specifically pointed down in the Constitution of India where tremendous levels of the judiciary are elucidated in a hierarchical setup of establishments. These courts are majorly pointed above but will be elucidated in a pragmatic appearance below followed by a detail explanation of their functioning.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!


The apex judicial authority of the country i.e., the Supreme Court of India came into existence on the January 28th of 1950. It came into existence after substituting the two of them, the federal court system and the judicial committee of the privy council which were legitimately the supreme authority of the Indian court system at that time. The honourable Constitution structured in 1950 envisioned a little transformed civil court system. In the said specific, the highest court of appeal was the Supreme Court with a Chief Justice and 7 additional justices. nevertheless, the parliament of India assented the authority to increase the number of judges in the approaching years. In the contemporary situation, post the commencement of the Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Bill of 2019 into law, the judicial strength has been increased to 34 in number. The sanctioned strength of Supreme Court judges was increased days after the Chief Justice wrote to Prime Minister Narendra Modi to increase the number of judges in the top court.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!

The aforesaid acts as an adjudicator and interpreter which can be elaborated with the help of different jurisdictions bestowed with the court. The roles of the apex legal authority as an adjudicator and interpreter can be clearly understood through the original and appellate jurisdictions.

As enshrined under the Article 131 of the Constitution of India [1], the Supreme Court is granted with the original jurisdiction. This power of jurisdiction is exercised to adjudicate the disputes between Union and one or more states and between two or more states. The respectful must involve some question of law or fact on which the existence or extent of legal rights can be adjudicated. For an illustration; River disputes between 2 or more states.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!

As enshrined under the Article 32 of the Constitution of India [2], extends a wide-ranging original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court for the enforcement of fundamental rights of the citizens, through issuing directions, orders and writs. The latter is more commonly titled as, the ‘Writ Jurisdiction’. The appellate jurisdiction residing with the apex court of India can be prayed by an order approved by the high court. Appeals submitted to the honourable supreme court against the lower court of appeals can range from any judgement, decree or final order of the Court in both criminal and civil cases. Moreover, asper the Article 136 of the Constitution of India [3] the supreme court can even practice the wide appellate jurisdiction over all Courts and Tribunals. Underneath with its own sense of discretion, the Hon’ble Court may assent a special leave appeal to any decree, determination, judgment, order or sentence in any cause or matter passed or made by any Court within its own jurisdiction.

Alongside being an interpreter, as enshrined under Article 143 of the Constitution [4], the court of the highest appeal also acts as an advisor to the Hon’ble President of the Union of India. The official title for the said is “Presidential Reference” and is named as the ‘Advisory jurisdiction’ of the Court. With its proclamation, the supreme commander of the defence forces will have a choice to seek advice from the supreme court over a legitimate question of law or matter of public importance. Notwithstanding to the factum, it is in no needs and deeds absolutely binding over the highest legal authority to answer all of the questions. The reasons of rejection would be acknowledged if they stand in the fire line of political or socio-economic in nature.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!


The union of republic of India comprises of 24 major High Courts at the states and UT’s level, each and every high court encompasses jurisdiction over a specific UT, one single state, or more than a single state or UT. Subsequent to the supreme court, the high courts are also the courts of record which enshrines them the power to punish for the contempt made to them. The very first high court of republic of India was the Calcutta High Court.

The High Courts of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras possess an original jurisdiction over the civil and criminal cases arising across their territorial jurisdiction. The Hon’ble High Courts enjoy the treat of power to hear civil cases concerning property worth over Rs.20000. Petitions on elections are also entitled to be heard in the High Courts. They are empowered to issue writs [habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari for enforcement of fundamental and other rights] under the Article 226 of the Constitution of India [1] and the matters of these writs unlike of the supreme court can even go beyond the umbrella of just fundamental rights; making its scope of authority wider than that of the Hon’ble apex court of the country.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!

If any individual finds the decision delivered by the respectful lower courts unsatisfactory, the concerned individual under the Appellate Jurisdiction of the High Court can make his submissions again with a proper procedure inscribed by law. An appeal can also be made from the subordinate court directly if the dispute involves a value higher than Rs. 5000/- or on a question of fact or law. They even possess a power of judicial review, the said provides the court of record to declare any law or ordinance null and void i.e., unconstitutional.


Underneath the functioning of high courts and the supreme court, in order to dispense justice at the very lower or district level, certain lower judicial bodies are incorporated. These lower judicial bodies are popularly known as the lower courts and comprise of; district and sub-ordinate courts. Each specific state is divided into some judicial districts whose authority is on the shoulders of the ‘District and Sessions Judge’. They are titled as District Judge in the civil related matter and in the criminal cases, the judges are termed as a Sessions Judge.

A District Judge is also known to be as a ‘Metropolitan Sessions Judge’ when the concerned holds a chair of a district court prevailing its jurisdiction in a metropolitan area. District judges may even dispense their authorities with Additional District judges, depending upon the judicial workload over the respectful court. Hon’ble District Judge is the highest judicial authority after the Hon’ble justice of a High Court. In some special cases, the presence of lower judicial authorities which are even lower than that of a District Court and the same are called as, Munsif’s Courts and Small Causes Courts. The aforesaid courts only have an original jurisdiction and can hear suits concerning only small amount matters therefore, they possess a very less pecuniary jurisdiction.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!

An additional district or a district court in the civil and criminal matters of its own district empowers and practices jurisdiction on both the sides, be it original or appellate. In the civil cases, the pecuniary and the territorial jurisdiction of these courts are totally and absolutely regulated by the concerned state enactments. In the case if criminal matters, the exclusive jurisdiction comes from the CrPC[1].

The district court comprises an appellate jurisdiction over all the lower courts within its own jurisdiction. Few special specific matters of the civil or criminal cases cannot be submitted in a court whose jurisdiction is lower than that of a district i.e., District Court.  An individual if left unsatisfactory can approach the Hon’ble high court under the umbrella of the appellant jurisdiction.

Learn about Civil Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course!

[1] Code Crim. Proc.

[1] India Const. art. 226.

[1] India Const. art. 131.

[2] India Const. art. 32.

[3] India Const. art. 136.

[4] India Const. art. 143.


Insider Trading in view of the order by SEBI to ban Future group

By: Vatsal Mehrotra


Insider trading can be defined as buying or selling of a public company stocks by a person who has non-public and material information about that company or the management decisions to be taken by that company. Depending on when the insider makes the trade, Insider Trading can be categorized as legal or illegal. Material non-public information is defined as any information that could substantially impact an investor’s decision to buy or sell the security that has not been made available to the public yet. This information is largely used in the stock market which engages in trade of shares and securities. The prices for which are subject to fluctuation if there is any important change in the management of the company. Apart from this the fluctuation in the prices of the shares of that company in the stock market, is also visible when important decisions pertaining to mergers, acquisitions or takeovers are undertaken in the company. Knowledge of these changes without the official public announcements is beneficial for the people engaging in such illegal transactions of stocks.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!

It is considered one of the most serious crimes in the capital markets as the inside trader has traded undisclosed price sensitive information regarding the shares of that particular company.
However, if the said trade is done towards any regulatory authority or the prescribed authority then the same trade would not amount to any violation of law. In academic circles the idea of insider trading is still debatable as academicians under circumstances feel that insider trading is important for building the trust and confidence of the employees of the company towards the company. Therefore, one must be careful while treating a trade in securities of a company as insider trading. They must consider all the relevant factors like the nature of information, the existence of substantial connection with the company, etc.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!

Insider Trading in India

The reason insider trading is considered illegal in law is that it gives a person an unfair advantage and persons not having that advantage cannot trade and will be under loss. Moreover, fair opportunity which shall be granted to everyone trading in the stock market to buy and sell the shares will be lost and the holder of the illegal information shall be creating unfair transactions. To counter such a situation, the legislature passed Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992 (SEBI Act, 1992), in which, under section 15G, for insider trading was provided.

The penalty for such an offence was provided to be not less than ten lakh rupees which may extend to twenty-five crores rupees or three times the profit made on such trading. In fact, the SEBI regulations have been amended from time to time. After Hindustan Lever Ltd v. SEBI, (1998) 18 S.C.L. 311AA, the regulations were for the first time amended in 2002 after which the next set of amendments came in 2019 on the recommendations of the Fair Market Committee (FMC). While the most recent reform came after the meeting of the SEBI on 25th June, 2020, where maintaining a structured database containing the nature of unpublished price sensitive information (UPSI) along with the name of the person sharing such information was incorporated.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!

Future Group and Insider Trading ban

SEBI on 3rd February, 2021, banned Kishore Biyani, founder of Future Retail Groups from buying, selling, or dealing in securities of Future Retail for two years. His brother Anil along with several other entities were also banned. This was done in relation to a case filed back in 2017 where enquiry was called in the use of UPSI to trade in Future Retail shares. The SEBI found out that several entities Future Corporate Resources Pvt. Ltd (FCRL), FCRL Employee Welfare Trust, etc., were acting in connivance with the Biyani family for insider trading.

The order stated that the Biyani-family controlled entities were in violation of the regulatory mechanism as they had indulged in insider trading in the shares of group flagship Future Retail Ltd (FRL) prior to an announcement about the consolidation of the group’s offline and online home retail business into a single entity. Following the announcement in April 2017, shares of Future Retail hit a record high. The price of the scrip of FRL increased 4.68% from Rest. 292.60/- per share (closing price on April 19, 2017) to Rs.306.30/- per share (closing price on April 20, 2017).

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!

The order had also clarified that “When a person who has traded in securities has been in possession of unpublished price sensitive information, his trades would be presumed to have been motivated by the knowledge and awareness of such information in his possession. The reasons for which he trades or the purposes to which he applies the proceeds of the transactions are not intended to be relevant for determining whether a person has violated the regulation. He traded when in possession of unpublished price sensitive information is what would need to be demonstrated at the outset to bring a charge.”

In April, 2017, the Future Retails Group consolidated its home retail business, offline operated by its HomeTown stores while online and ecommerce by Blue eServices which owns and manages fabfurnish. This was done to bring “greater visibility on the performance of the home retail business and e-commerce home retail business”. However, Biyani and other related entities started buying FRL shares from March 10th, 2017 when the decision was internally improved even though this was made public on April 20th, 2017 during market hours.
The funds for purchase of the FRL shares during the UPSI period was done on the written instructions and authorization by Kishore Biyani and Anil Biyani to their stockbroker Indiabulls. SEBI fined them heavily for this holding the entities guilty of the crime of insider trading.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!
However, on 6th February, 2021, the ban by the SEBI was challenged and Kishore Biyani moved the Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT) challenging the ban. In fact, the FRL spokesperson has said “On merits, the SEBI order is untenable since it treats a well-anticipated and publicly well-known impending reorganisation of the home furnishing businesses that the Future Group affected in 2017 to be unpublished information.”

Approach of the Courts in Insider Trading Matter

The juridical approach has always been such that inside traders have been dealt strictly in accordance with law. In Securities Exchange Commission v Rajat Gupta ,747 F.3d 111, the defendant had traded in confidential information worth in billions and he was convicted for a period of two years and fined five million dollars along with returning the profits gained from insider trading.
Gujarat NRE Mineral Resource Limited v. SEBI, (Appeal No. 207 of 2010 decided on 18.11.2011), the main issue was whether investment from one company and selling it to the other company affects the prices of shares. The Appellate Tribunal decided against it as it held that since an investment company’s primary objective is buying and selling of securities, such an act would not amount to price sensitive information. After Hindustan
Hindustan Lever Limited v. SEBI, (1998 SCL 311), the regulations were amended by the SEBI in such a manner that any speculative news published in the newspaper or in electronic media about a company would not amount to publication of price sensitive information.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!

Recommendations to improve regulations against Insider trading

The harmful effects of insider trading is disruptive for the market and certain measures can be taken to prevent such incidents. To prevent such incidents the stock exchanges play a very important role and the proactive approach by them can help by duly monitoring the transactions by the insiders constantly and instantly reporting any suspicious activity by the insider to the SEBI. Furthermore, the regulations can be amended to impose liability on the person who receives the tip for trading in confidential information. Other than that the investors who are contemporaneously trading at the time of insider trading must be given the option to recover the losses suffered from the insider.
Rachana Panguluru, Vamsi Krishna Bodapati, Insider Trading- Comparative study with the UK and India, Manupatra.
This action might refrain the insiders from insider trading because many investors can exercise pressure on the insiders. The companies can also have qualified stock brokers who they make mandatory for all the insiders to purchase stocks only through that particular broker. The qualified broker will check whether the insider purchasing the stock satisfied all the conditions preceding the purchase or not and duly report them to the company.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!
Nonetheless, the efforts undertaken by SEBI to prevent insider trading is commendable and has helped India emerge as a top player in the capital market and its insider trading prohibition laws are equally competing with such laws in the developed countries. SEBI time and again constituted committees to have the regulations and laws on the prohibition of insider trading updated. It is constantly on a run in updating all the laws to prevent insider trading. SEBI started observing the markets to get rid of the insider trading activities at the root level itself.

Learn about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course!


Racism In Sports: International Laws & Rules From Various Jurisdictions

By: Umang Chaturvedi


“Why are all the angels white?

Why ain’t there no black angels?”

                                                        -Muhammad Ali


Sports have acted as a medium to connect people beyond language, ethnicity, culture and boundaries. In its pure sense, it is a satisfying activity at the micro-level and nothing less than a war at the macro level. The scale of competition increases with the hierarchy and so does the complexities. Some athletes and sportspersons are revered equivalent to Gods in their respective fraternity by the public. This respect is gained by them because of the magnanimity of sports. The business that goes behind the curtains has resulted in this magnanimity. But these Gods within the ambit of their magnanimity have not been untouched to the social issues which normally go unnoticed. Issues like racism in sports are not done yet from the world let alone the sporting facility. This article elucidates the reasons of racism present in professional sports with an attempt to define the core and genesis of the problem.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

The author explains the legislations/law which helps to counter this problem at global level. Additionally, the author has tried to provide an analysis through the cases of international performers who were subjected to racism in their careers. Certainly, the issue of disparity on the basis of colour begins within the nations. The problems are much more than racism being a ground of discrimination. In a country like India the issues even extend to discrimination on the basis of caste, sub-caste, race, gender, sex, etc.

  1. Introduction

Racism is defined as “a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race[1] by the Merriam Webster dictionary. Senseless killings and instances of Eric Garner (2014), AhmaudArbery (February 2020), Breonna Taylor (March, 2020) and George Flyod (May 2020) have witnessed sports community coming together to support the right cause irrespective of differences. Such issues force athletes to speak effectively as they do not want to go unheard for the social cause. LeBron James, Stephen Curry, James Harden, etc. are some of the most vocal NBA players after the recent incidents occurred. Other figures from different sports that have been vocal are Lewis Hamilton, Colin Kaepernick etc. They have supported the cause too.

The problem has not been untouched to the fraternity of sports. Rather it is more rampant. Any act within the territorial boundary of a competitive sport can be disguised as an act in the heat of the momentby the offender. Calm and composure are expected the most out of an athlete and sportsperson. These acts from the coolpeople then cannot be covered under the garb of competition or heat of the moment.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

  1. Core Problem

With cricket being popular as the game of gentlemen, it upsets the fraternity when conflicting views are shared by somebody belonging to the game itself. In late June 2020, West Indies cricket team’s captain Jason Holder said, “it is time for the entire cricketing fraternity to treat racism as seriously as match-fixing or doping and to hand tougher bans on racial offenders.[2] Such statements point fingers at the authorities and the incapability of sport-specific laws which need to get stricter.

The core of the problem is the chauvinism that a superior country’s men carry with them. Such stereotypes are broken easily when a deprived and dominated wins or creates his/her space in the sport bare minimum. In context, 2013’s Chadwick Boseman starrer sports-drama film, “42[3] came in light. It highlighted the efforts of an African-American Major League Professional player Jackie Robinson who was subjected to racism in a then all-white baseball league by fellow players and fans. His jersey number was later retired in respect, on which the film’s name was based.To draw a parallel from the same, the core of the issue lies within the people of the sporting fraternity. Everybody associated with it especially the fans.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

  1. Laws, legislations and efforts

Issues raised through acts done by black athletes are certainly to bring into light the adversities they’ve faced over the course of history. These issues are political in nature which overlaps with sports. This overlap has its own interpretation where some define it to be right and other define it to be wrong. “Dissent in sports is usually understood as expressing dissatisfaction against an umpire’s decision. However, in the present context, dissent must be understood as a conscientious protest against a larger problem that has socio-political undertones.”[4] In this sub-heading, the author has tried to analyze various measure and steps taken by the way of local laws of different jurisdictions. The examples considered for study include and are categorized into Australian laws, European laws and initiatives, Conventions of United Nations, laws of USA and Indian laws.

  1. Australia

The provisions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (“ICERD”)[5] are incorporated under Australian Law through its Racial Discriminations Act of 1975. It is a general legislation extending to sports and related organizations. Australian Football League (AFL) guidelines are strict regarding racism since the introduction of Rule 30 in 1995. Rule 30 is used to tackle racism and religious vilification. Even the laws of Australia are stringent regarding racism in general through Racial Discrimination Act, 1975 and Racial Hatred Act, 1995[6].

In 2008, Indian spinner (cricketer) Harbhajan Singh was penalized for allegedly expressing racial views on an Australian cricketer Andrew Symonds when the former called him ‘monkey’ during a test match in Australia. This embarrassing event was a confusing one. It was deliberated if the act was racial or not because the remark clearly did not qualify for the alleged violation but it was still derogatory. Eventually Justice John Hansen of Australian Appeal Court absolved the cricketer of liability and cleared the charges. What adds to the problem is that a spectator cannot be banned or fined for comments because that is the major revenue generation source for clubs. Australian local football has seen various instances where boys aged 12-14 who come from other countries to make their career face racism at a vulnerable stage.[7]

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

  1. Europe

Europe has been the center stage for football with record breaking viewership every year. Multiple local leagues are supported due to interest and large fan base. As a cherry on the top, UEFA Europa League and UEFA Champions League have dominated global football in all terms. There are multiple organizations and legislations which help in tackling the problem in Europe. FARE (Football Against Racism in Europe) Network is one such organization which has received backing from governing bodies like UEFA, FIFA and European Commission for the common objective of eradicating the social issue. Headquartered in London, it was set up in the year 1999 at Vienna (Austria). It gained relevance in the contemporary scenario when it began to work as a network of enthusiasts, players, associations, etc. as members to stand strong against the discrimination.

A similar initiative as a 3 day campaign was launched in 2006 by the Romanian Football Federation in association with National Council for Combating Discrimination (a society-institute based in Romania). It was named Racism Breaks the Game which was organized to combat discrimination against the Romani minority and to promote fair play in football. Even UEFA DR Article 14[8] prohibits racism of any form and prescribes ways to tackle it through guidelines. Article 165 of Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) also acts in the same regard. It deals with all such issues arising out of sports. Lisbon Treaty though allows the Union for minimal interference but acts strictly through courts for cases arising out of racism.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

  1. United Nations and United States of America (USA)

United Nations has time and again used sports as a mode to end racism at global level. It was reiterated by then Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon that, “Sport is a universal activity that can reaffirm our fundamental human rights.”[9]He urged to “use the power of sport to end the blight of racism” as it marked the annual International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in 2013.Additionally, The Durban Programme of Action 2001 in paragraph 128, 129 and 218 urges international and national sports bodies to tackle racism effectively. Inter-American Convention against Racism, Racial Discrimination and Related Forms of Intolerance, 2013[10] is another internationally signed document.

In USA, the Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Federal Act, 1972 complements the Civil Rights Act, 1964 “in the area of public education and federally assisted programmes (enacted to end discrimination in various fields)”[11]. The legislation has ensured equal access to sports for all active programmes that receive federal funding in USA[12]. Even after attaining peak of success in sports, public and spectators disregard such facts and direct racist comments in NBA, Pro Baseball and NFL. In early 2019 Oklahoma’s basketball star Russell Westbrook faced racist remarks in an away game at Utah.

  1. India

India is a home to multiple sports and professional leagues like IPL, ISL, IHL, Pro-Kabaddi etc. The country is more special due to its diversity. Additionally the essence of regional representation varies. There are sub-divisions and regions within regions. Even a whole north-east is described into 7 sisters further. South, in itself is divided in historical kingdoms now states. This division is interesting but when people from different backgrounds face each other in state/national camps, there are conflicts of opinions, likes, dislikes which might be detrimental in the longer run for a team representing at the international level.

The best example can be drawn from 2007’s Indian film Chak De! India. Shah Rukh Khan embodied the role of hockey coach Maharaj Krishan Kaushik mixed with the background of Indian player Mir Ranjan Negi. The film was based on a real story where Indian Women’s Hockey Team won 2002 Commonwealth Games. It showed the reality of internal conflicts (due to colour, region, state, racial and religious bigotry[13] etc.) between players during the camp.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

India introduced the Anti-Discrimination and Equality Bill 2016 (ADE Bill) in the Lok Sabha to tackle any form of discrimination. Other than broad discussions under Article 14, 15, 16 of the Constitution of India, federations are entrusted with the duty to handle all issues relating to sports. Additionally, Section 153A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 deals with the punitive measure related to racist acts or comments.

  1. Conclusion – Solution and Criticism

In all, the issue of racism has proven to be detrimental to the development of some athletes but there are many amazingly great sportspersons who have defeated all odds and reached the top in their respective sports. The problem is deep rooted in the social system which comprises of humans, which is a much broader aspect than society. It includes athletes, sportspersons and all other people related to the fraternity of sports in one way or other. To eradicate the issue of racism from sports, the primary need is to make people realise that there are no differences in reality, they are essentially in the mind of individuals and their beliefs, which is prima facie incorrect.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!

Until the mentality of important organizations like IOC does not change, no substantial change can be found. The controversial Rule 50 of the Olympic Charter prohibits any “kind of demonstration or political, religious or racial propaganda…in any Olympic sites, venues or other areas”. It was clarified by the authorities in January 2020 in preparation of scheduled Olympics that any gesture or kneeling (like past incidents of Gwen Berry’s fist on podium and Colin Kaepernick’s kneeling) will not be entertained at the events.

Until IOC resolves issues like these where the anti-racist demonstration are looked at from a perspective of political overlap, there won’t be a solution. The international sports guidelines in context with racism are soft but strict. Still there is a requirement for spectators, fellow players and organizations to be careful specifically around the young representatives of respective sports. A negative impression is made for a second inside the court/field which stays and impacts a vulnerable young player for his whole life. Sports should be used as a medium for the primary purpose of leisure and shall only be associated with the efforts, hard-work, dedication and sweet success involved.

[1]Racism, Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Jan. 23, 2009).

[2]Sportstar, Jason Holder: Racism Should be Treated as Seriously as Match-Fixing and Doping, (June 28, 2020), 937748.ece.

[3], Jackie Robinson Breaks Color Barrier, (April 13, 2020),,for%20more% 20than%2050%20years.

[4]Shivam Singh, When Sports Align With Dissent, The Indian Express, (June 26, 2020),

[5]Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, What’s the Score?A Survey of Cultural Diversity and Racism in Australian Sport, (2006), p. 8,


[7]Sophie Kesteven, Kids are Being Subjected to Racist Abuse at Junior Sports Games, ABC Radio National, (Nov 1, 2019),

[8]UEFA Disciplinary Regulation, 2019 Edition, 3983e-1000/disciplinary_regs.pdf.

[9]UN News, No Place for Racism in Sports, UN Declares on International Day, (March 21, 2013),

[10]Organisation of American States, Inter-American Convention Against Racism, Racial Discrimination an Related Forms of Intolerance,

[11]ACLU, Gender Equity in Education,

[12]U.N. GAOR, 69th Sess., A/69/340, Combating Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and related intolerance, (Aug. 22, 2014),

[13]Jaspreet Pandohar, Chak De India! BBC, (August 1, 2007), de_india_2007_review.shtml.

Learn more about International Sports Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Krida Legal!


Separation of Powers Between the Organs of the Government in India

“When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty, because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, and execute them in a tyrannical manner.” – Montesquieu

The division of power is based on two methods, i.e., either territorial where the power is divided between the central government and different regional governments; or functional as the work of the government has become so extensive that in the interest of efficiency and effectiveness it is deemed necessary to entrust the work of the government to different and specialized organs. Government powers have traditionally been classified as legislative (law-making), executive (law-enforcement) and judiciary (interpretation of laws and adjudication). In modern political thinkers it was Bodin who first advocated the idea of separation of executive and judicial powers in the interest of better administration of justice. Locke also advocated the separation of powers and recognized the importance of judicial function to be just and impartial. However, ideas of these great thinkers were developed and formulated into a coherent theory by the French philosopher Montesquieu who gave the doctrine of tripartite division of governmental functions with mutual checks and balances. He was of the opinion that it is not the machinery of government or political institutions which make the people free. It is the spirit or the manner in which the government organs function that secure freedom or liberties of people. Montesquieu was deeply impressed by the individual freedom and liberty present in the English society and while analyzing the English Legal system he observed that the stability and liberties enjoyed was derived from their adherence to the principle of separation of powers. The doctrine of separation of power as laid down by Montesquieu was to safeguard individual liberty.

Learn more about Constitutional Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Scriboard Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Moreover, there is no liberty if the power of the judiciary is not separated from the legislature and executive. Had judiciary been joined with the legislative then the life and liberty of the individual would be subject to arbitrary control because the judge would then be the legislature; had it been clubbed with the executive then the judge might behave with violence and oppression. Montesquieu vehemently opposed the concentration of government powers, legislative, executive and judicial, in the hand of one person or in the same body of person which would be dangerous to individual liberty. There could be no protection of the individual freedom as the legislature, the prosecutor and the judge all would be same and hence there can be no check against abuse of executive authority, legislative tyranny or judicial misbehavior. He therefore, advocated that the three functions of the government should be entrusted to three different departments, each separately and independently performing its own distinct function.


Application of Doctrine of Separation of Powers under Indian Political System

In the Indian Constitution, which provide for parliamentary form of government strict separation of the Legislature and the Executive is not possible as the Cabinet consist of persons who are Members of Parliament. Under the Indian Political System there is no rigid separation of powers. The Indian Constitution had the privilege to see the working and taking advantage of other democratic constitutions with their operations.

Under Articles Articles 53(1) and 154(1), the Constitution of India has vested the executive power in the Union and the State with the President and the Governor. However, there is no explicit provision of vesting the legislature and judicial powers in a particular organ. In fact, the power to amend the Constitution is regarded as part of the constituent power conferred on Parliament.

Learn more about Constitutional Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Scriboard Advocates and Legal Consultants!

In Kesavananda Bharati v. Union of India the Supreme Court of India considered the question whether the Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution was unlimited so as to permit amendment or repeal of any provision of the Constitution. A Bench of 13 Judges declared that the power to “amend” does not include the power to abrogate the Constitution or to damage or destroy the basic structure of the Constitution. Some of the Judges mentioned a few basic features by way of illustration: Supremacy of the Constitution, Democratic Republican form of government, Secular character of the Constitution, separation of powers among the legislature, the executive and judiciary, the federal character of the Constitution, rule of law, equality of status and of opportunity.

Subsequently, power of judicial review has been declared as a basic feature of the Constitution in L. Chandra Kumar v. Union of India. The Supreme Court has since struck down quite a few amendments to the Constitution, made by Parliament as violative of the basic structure of the Constitution. Therefore, the Judiciary is independent in its field and there can be no interference either by the executive or the legislature. The judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President in consultation with the CJI and judges of the Supreme Court the Supreme Court has power to make Rules for efficient conduction of business. In fact, it is noteworthy that Article 50 of the Constitution puts an obligation over the state to separate the judiciary from the executive. However, since Article is a Directive Principle of State Policy (DPSP) it cannot be enforced in a court of law and has mere persuasive value.

Learn more about Constitutional Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Scriboard Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Similarly, there are certain provisions in the constitution which provides for powers, privileges and immunities to the Members of Parliament from judicial scrutiny into the proceedings of the house. Such provisions are thereby making legislature independent, in a way.

A landmark decision in this regard was the case of Keshav Singh, which was a special reference case, where he was committed to incarceration on the behest of contempt of the Uttar Pradesh State Legislative Assembly. A petition was filed and the Legislative Assembly took a serious view of the matter and passed a resolution that Keshav Singh, his Advocate who moved the High Court and the two Judges who entertained the petition and granted bail had committed contempt of the Assembly and all of them should be produced before it in custody. Subsequently when the matter reached the Supreme Court, where they clarified that once a court is satisfied about the existence and the extent of privilege and its breach it should decline to interfere with the privileges of the House. However, the two judges in this case were not guilty of contempt.

Learn more about Constitutional Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Scriboard Advocates and Legal Consultants!

The Constitution provides for the conferral of executive power on the President. The powers and functions of the President have been powers enumerated in the Constitution itself. The President and the Governor are immune of civil and criminal liabilities. Generally, the legislature is the repository of the legislative power but, under some specified circumstances the President is also empowered to exercise legislative functions. For instance, while issuing an ordinance, framing rules and regulations relating to Public service matters, formulating law while proclamation of emergency is in force. These were some instances of the executive head becoming the repository of legislative functioning. President performs judicial functions also while assenting to death sentences.

On the other hand, the parliament performs certain judicial functions as well. It can decide the question of breach of its privilege, and in case of impeaching the President; both the houses take active participation and decide the charges. Judiciary, in India, too can be seen exercising administrative functions when it supervises all the subordinate courts below. The power of judicial review exercised by the Judiciary also prevents legislative transgression in powers of different organs of the government. The National Judicial Appointment Commission (NJAC) judgement is one such case where the judiciary declared the law of the parliament to be void as it undermined Judicial Independence and Judicial Primacy in the appointment of judges.

In India, we follow the principle of separation of functions and not of powers. And hence, we do not abide by the principle rigidly. An example of it can be seen in the exercise of functions by the Cabinet ministers, who exercise both legislative and executive functions. Article 74(1) gives the Cabinet an upper hand over the executive by making their support and guidance mandatory for the formal head. The executive, thus, is derived from the legislature and is dependent on it, for its legitimacy.

This was the observation made by the Supreme Court in Ram Jawahar v. Punjab. Indian system is developed on the concept of ‘checks and balances’ and the same is consistent with the Montesquieu who had recognized that an absolute separation of powers would lead to state of repose and inaction. Therefore, none of the three organs can dispel the essential functions of the organs, which constitute a part of ‘basic structure’ doctrine. Some of these instances of checks and balances are legislative review of the functioning of the executive by deliberations and discussion in the Parliament; executive appointment of judges (President appoints them); The President can set aside a law passed by the legislative or any guidance provided by the Union Council of Ministers when the same is not in alignment with the Constitution of India. In case, the president assents to the law passed duly by the legislative, it can be repealed by the Supreme Court after a fair trial if it is against the Basic structure of the Constitution. Thereby, it would not be wrong to say that separation of powers in itself is not foundation of liberty. It is the system of checks and balances which allows individual liberty to exist. In fact, in words of Lord Acton: – ‘Power corrupts and absolute Power tends to corrupt absolutely. Conferment of power in a single body leads to absolutism. But, even after distinguishing the functions, when an authority wields public power, then providing absolute and sole discretion to the body in the matters regarding its sphere of influence may also cause abuse of such power. Therefore, the doctrine of separation of powers is a theoretical concept and is impracticable to follow it absolutely.’

Learn more about Constitutional Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Scriboard Advocates and Legal Consultants!


Comparative Study of Drugs and Cosmetics Law In U.K., U.S.A And Germany

By: Vanshika Tewari


Human culture is formulated on the basis of ethical society, honesty, integrity, respect, pursuit of excellence, civic duty, accountability and loyalty. Since the dawn of civilization , by trial or error, it has been established that a society and more so it’s medical profession, can survive and thrive only by observance and practice  of certain rules of conduct guided by ethical, moral, legal and social values of land. Medicine has been a field of utmost diligence and even though so many centuries have passed, this profession still holds its merit and authenticity. Further, the need for certain rules and legislative statutes governing the establishment and working of hospitals and its manpower was aggrieved at the time of the colonial regime and the World War scenario. Presently,  there are various other laws pertaining to the governing of hospitals, practitioners/ other employees, sale and storage of the drugs, license and permissions , public and environmental health ,etc.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Every nation has certain laws that help them in maintaining the standard quality of its drugs and cosmetics and as well as regulates its manufacturing, labelling, export,etc.

In this report we shall further talk about how countries like USA, Germany and United Kingdom regulate their medicines and also compare the methodology they have applied in maintaining and meeting the global health standards for their own produced drugs and cosmetics.



In spite of the fact that planned to happen from March 29, 2019, the Brexit has now deferred to October 31, 2019. The choice is expected to give more opportunity to the United Kingdom (UK) and the European Union (EU) to concur upon the provisions of the UK leaving the EU.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Up to this point, the EU guidelines straightforwardly influenced the restorative items that are appropriated in the UK. In any case, with the Brexit in situation, they are not, at this point expected to be appropriate in the UK locale as the UK is required to be treated as a third nation. In basic words, the UK won’t need to conform to the guidelines pertinent to the EU part states. Consequently, to line up with the Brexit changes, for Cosmetic items, some new laws have been laid before the UK parliament.[1]

United Kingdom has for ages been a part of the European Union and therefore the gudlines laid down by the EU for the working and regulation of this sector was to be followed and obligated too but earlier in 2019 after the BREXIT happened U.K. has given up with the E.U’s guidelines and framing their own laws pertaining to this, like –

The UK Cosmetic Regulations Draft, The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association (CTPA) has proposed the UK Cosmetic Products Statutory Instrument to the UK parliament to guarantee that post the Brexit just safe corrective items are circulated in the UK. The new draft will be in accordance with that of the EU’s including the rundown of prohibited and confined fixings.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

To enter the UK beautifiers showcase, organizations will be required to delegate a UK-based Responsible Person (RP), who is relied upon to tell the item to the capable position. To ensure the notice procedure smoothed out, the CTPA is by all accounts during the time spent structure the necessary item notice entrance for the UK like that of the Cosmetic Product Notification Portal (CPNP) of the EU.[2]

Once Brexit happens, all the corrective items told to the EU through CPNP are required to be informed to the UK notice framework inside ninety (90) days. Following are the pre-necessities for informing an item in the UK-

The name and category of the cosmetic product

The name and address of the responsible person

The content and ingredients of the product

What more! – the name of a restorative item should likewise bear the name and address of the Responsible Person. Post Brexit, restorative items marked with an EU-27 location and consistent with the EU naming guideline will be viewed as agreeable for a long time in the UK. If there should be an occurrence of imports additionally, the UK should consent to the import guidelines of the EU.

But still the restorative guidelines of both the districts are as of now muddled!

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!


In the United States, all drugs and cosmetics are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under authority granted by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.

The extent of FDA’s administrative authority is wide. FDA’s duties are firmly identified with those of a few other government organizations. Regularly disappointing and mistaking for customers is deciding the proper administrative organization to contact.

As a rule, FDA controls:[3]

  • Medications,

Including: doctor prescribed medications (both brand-name and conventional) ,non-solution (over-the-counter) drugs ,Biologics, including:  immunizations for people ,blood and blood items ,cell and quality treatment items tissue ,and tissue items allergenics

  • Clinical Devices,

Including:  basic things like tongue depressors and chamber pots  complex advances, for example, heart pacemakers dental gadgets ,careful inserts and prosthetics.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

FDA’s legitimate authority over makeup is not the same as our position over different items we manage, for example, drugs, biologics, and clinical gadgets. Under the law, corrective items and fixings needn’t bother with FDA premarket endorsement, except for shading added substances. In any case, FDA can seek after implementation activity against items available that are not in consistence with the law, or against firms or people who abuse the law.

FDA has reliably exhorted makers to utilize whatever testing is important to guarantee the security of their items and fixings. Firms may prove security in various manners. FDA has expressed that “the security of an item can be enough validated through (a) dependence on effectively accessible toxicological test information on singular fixings and on item plans that are comparable in structure to the specific corrective, and (b) execution of any extra toxicological and different tests that are proper considering such existing information and data.”[4]

FDA may make administrative move in the event that we have solid data demonstrating that a restorative is tainted or misbranded. For instance, FDA can seek after activity through the Department of Justice in the government court framework to expel defiled and misbranded beautifying agents from the market. To forestall further shipment of a defiled or misbranded item, FDA may demand a government area court to give a limiting request against the producer or merchant of the violative restorative. Beautifying agents that are not in consistence with the law might be dependent upon seizure. “Seizure” implies that the administration claims property from somebody who has disregarded the law, or is associated with doing as such. FDA additionally may start criminal activity against an individual abusing the law.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!


Germany is an integral part of the European Union and this is why the medical manufacturing sector here is ruled by the guidelines laid by the EU itself, following are some of the guidelines being put to use so far-

  • Corrective/Cosmetics/Drugstore items are dependent upon EU wide wellbeing guidelines. They should not be obligated to make harm human wellbeing, when applied under ordinary states of utilization or under sensibly predictable states of utilization.
  • It is a criminal offense to flexibly restorative items which don’t consent to the guidelines or neglect to agree to other related prerequisites.
  • All organizations managing in beautifying agents, including retailers, wholesalers, shippers and producers, are dependent upon the guidelines,etc.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

The guidelines place various commitments relying upon whether you are a ‘merchant’ (which incorporates retailers and wholesalers) or you import items from outside the EU / Germany and makers.

On the off chance that you are a maker in the EU, or you import products into the EU from a third nation, at that point you are considered to be a mindful individual and more prominent obligations will concern you. A maker outside the EU may assign somebody inside the EU as a mindful individual.

Organizations managing in skin lighteners, and certain germicidal cleanser items, ought to be especially cautious as there are loads of illicit variants of these items. Further direction on these is accessible.

Primary lawful prerequisites

Corrective items must follow point by point compositional and naming prerequisites.

You should track where you acquired your beautifying agents from and, in the event that you offer them to different organizations, who you provided them as well. These must be accessible for review for a long time from when you were provided with them or, if material, when you provided them

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Distributors must act with due consideration including guaranteeing items are not obsolete. Specifically, you should watch that beautifying agents are named with;

o The name and address of a responsible person in the EU

o A batch or manufacture reference number

o An ingredients list. This must be headed ‘ingredients’

More than 1,300 substances are precluded from being utilized in corrective items. For instance, chlorine, cyanides, iodine, mercury and mercury mixes, for example, mercuric iodide. Note that skin helping creams contain hydroquinone are likewise illicit.

Any items with Corticosteroid substances like Clobetasol Propionate, Bethamethasone or Bethamethosone Dipropionate must not be at a bargain in corrective shops. Flexibly of such items may likewise be an offense under medications enactment.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!


The guidelines pertaining to the drugs and cosmetics regulations in these three different countries appear to be quite similar but however, there were discrepancies for certain recommendations relating to the labelling, circulation, offender liability, permitted chemicals, etc.

Updates for these guidelines are being worked upon in almost all these countries , although United Kingdom would be framing its own and new set of medicinal guidelines and acts ,it can be said that all these countries are primary contributors in the field of medicine and as of now they all have strong legislations to backbone their Drugs and Cosmetic standards and regulation but there is enough evidence that may lead them to stronger statutes and will enable the future guidelines to become even more concordant. As with the intensive research done and developments being made , a slight moderation of the acts maybe needed.[5]

At the end we can say that these three countries have almost similar provisions for the regulation of drugs within their territory but unlike Germany (EU), U.S.A. may be a step behind as it is majorly functioning on only one statute ,whereas there should be different acts dealing with the different sections of the drugs and cosmetics field. It will in a way improve the efficiency in terms of the proper vigilance that this sector needs.

Learn more about Drugs and Cosmetics Law with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified course by Legaleye Advocates and Legal Consultants!

Presently, United Kingdom is witnessing its post- BREXIT era and therefore trying to not really comply with the European Union guidelines it is laying down its own provisions. As the Brexit happened in 2019, it would not really be this quick and easy to formulate strong medicinal laws, therefore no comparison can be drawn with regards to U.K. but it is sure that the U.K.  Parliament will soon frame a law which would meet all the perimeters  required for a stronger Medical (Drugs and Cosmetics) regulating sector.




[4] The Safety and Regulatory Status of Food, Drug and Cosmetics Colour Additives Exempt from Certification


*International Association of Color Manufacturers, 1620 1 Street, NW, Suite 925, Washington, DC 20006, 10 January 1995

[5] APA Koes, Bart W., PhD*; van Tulder, Maurits W., PhD†; Ostelo, Raymond, MSc‡; Kim Burton, A., PhD, DO§; Waddell, Gordon, DSc, MD, FRCS∥ Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: An International Comparison, Spine: November 15, 2001 – Volume 26 – Issue 22 – p 2504-2513


Comparative Study of Penal Laws in Australia, U.K. and Canada

By: Ankita Pachouri

Enactment of a particular legal system is designed to deal with from the stage of commencement of crime through its trial and right to its meaningful end, thus criminal laws or penal laws were framed. Penal Laws are the set of laws determining the action as legal or illegal and any behavior that is harmful to any person or society, aims to threaten to cause bodily or mental harm and thus sentencing with appropriate penance.

In Australia, like the British law, a mere intention in criminal attempt is not prescribed. In Australia as with India, when a criminal prosecution is commenced, the burden of proof lies with the prosecutor. The general rule is that the accused person is ‘innocent until proven guilty’. The standard of proof is ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ which is the highest standard in law. The criminal law gathers its roots from English common law, with one state even drawing its laws from 19th century criminal code operating in India. Additionally, the principles of ‘Double Jeopardy’[1] and ‘Right to remain Silent’ are also held as essential.

The States have more control over criminal law as compared to the Federal Government. Criminal Laws govern not only the nature of crimes and the penalties thereof but also the procedures of trial and nature of evidence. There are several legislations that make up the criminal law in each Australian state.  Australia has nine criminal jurisdictions—

  • six state governments,
  • two territory governments
  • the federal government.

Each state has a collection of Acts and regulations establishing criminal offences and regulating the operation of the criminal justice system. The Criminal Code Act, 1995 of the Federal Government is an exhaustive piece of legislation containing 261 divisions.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

Criminal law is primarily divided along ‘Indictable offences’[2] and ‘Summary Offences. The term ‘indictable offences’ represents grave offences, with some states choosing to bifurcate them further into ‘minor indictable’ and ‘major indictable’ while ‘summary offences’ refer to comparatively lighter offences. If the Offender pleads guilty, the court can order a fine or a sentence or suspended sentence or imposing a bond or a home detention or community service or orders of restraining, compensation, forfeiture and so on. The trial starts if the accused pleads not guilty. An indictment is a formal document that the prosecution files with a court to commence a ‘trial on indictment’. This document presents a brief description of the charges faced by an accused. All offences, except summary offences are able to be tried ‘on indictment’. The prosecutor acts on behalf of the Crown and the cases are mentioned as against ‘the Queen’, which is similar to the Indian way where criminal offences are said to be against the entire society and hence mentioned as against ‘The State’.

The Jury which consists of 12 citizens who are chosen from the electoral rolls play an important role in Criminal trials. The judge explains the relevant laws to the jury and it is the job of the jury to derive facts from the evidence presented to them. Crimes committed by people under the age of 18 years are dealt with either by a caution or by the Youth court. Serious crimes by minors are referred to the Supreme Court. Another important facet of the Australian criminal law pertains to Coroner’s Court. The Coroner[3] has the power to enquire into unnatural deaths, accidents, missing persons cases amongst others.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

The historical development of the penal law trace back to the English Reformation and the acts that gave supremacy to the crown which led to the development of the penal laws in United Kingdom. After the British reformation, the penal laws of the United Kingdom passed against the Roman Catholic of England and Ireland penalising their practice and hence imposed civil Penalties on them. During 16th and 17 the century, numerous acts were passed determining the imprisonment, fines in case of participation and also death penalty in case of practice by the Catholic priests in the territories of United Kingdom. Many rights were barred to them, like, right to vote, right to own land, right to teach their ideas, etc. But later all these discriminatory penal laws were removed especially during 1778-93 and other further corrections were made in the penal laws of the United Kingdom. Civil penalties were imposed on the people who developed the sacrament towards the Rome and not towards the king headship. The English Parliament passed the two most important acts, i.e., Clarendon Code[4], the Test Act[5] and the Toleration Act[6].

There is no penal code in the United Kingdom, rather there are three different criminal justice system:

  • Scotland
  • New England
  • Wales

The sources and explanation of the criminal laws are to be found in individual Acts such as:

  • Parliamentary and statutory laws
  • Decisions by judicial bodies, particularly, the Court of Appeal

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

The definitions of various offences are found in the respective rule books, like, theft, burglary are defined in the Theft Act,1968. The introduction of new laws has to be done to both the House of Commons and also the House of Lords. Then on being successfully passed it becomes the Acts of the Parliament. Common law is also a major source of criminal law which is framed from the customs and laws people generally follow. The acts like Homicide Act 1957, Murder (abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965 and the Criminal Justice Act 1991 are the statutes which set out the punishments and defences to them. The adversarial principle provides the logic in determining the nature of the crime and also its operations. After providing the evidence, the court forms a jury, stipendiary, magistrate or a panel of magistrates depending upon the seriousness of the crime. As said above about the adversarial system, it does not expect a person to be innocent or culprit but only whether guilty or not. Mostly crime is proven by the culprits on their own admission of the guilt. The abolition of the Criminal Act of 1967 demolished the difference major and minor crimes and further added the concept of:

  • arrestable crime: crime in which the punishment is fixed by law
  • non arrestable crimes: Crime in which finds no mention under the rule of law.


The laws of U.K., like Australian law, classifies offences into three categories for procedural purposes;

  • indictable only: offence requiring a formal document which sets out charges about a person and tried only in the crown court. E.g. kidnaping, robbery, rape, etc.
  • triable-either-way: offence which can be dealt infront of either magistrate’s court or crown court. E.g. theft, assault, etc.
  • Summary: offence whose proceedings are held in the magistrate’s court. E.g. drink and drive, less serious assault, etc.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

The criminal law of Canada finds its genesis in its founding document called as the Constitution Act 1867 which gave sole authority to Canadian parliament to make criminal laws. Section 91 of the Canadian Constitution describes criminal law in federal Parliament as the sole jurisdiction. In the year 1892 the government of Canada passed a law called as the criminal code as it amalgamated crimes and criminal law procedure into a single statue which has witnessed plethora of amendments in the past. The Canadian criminal law has certain fundamentals similar to that of India viz- ‘’presumed innocent until proven guilty’’. The Criminal Code, a wide-ranging Code which contains 28 ‘parts’ which contain offences under various heads including Terrorism, currency and Public Morals is the behemoth governing Canadian criminal justice. There are different statues to govern specifically on a subject matter. The Supreme Court, established under constitutional reform act 2005, is the highest and final court of appeal in the criminal cases from England, Wales and Ireland.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

There are two levels of crime in the system namely,

  • federal level crimes
  • regulatory or provincial offences

The former crimes are more serious in nature and deal with murder, arson, fraud etc. and the latter offences are comparatively of non-serious nature. All the levels however unanimously provide assistance in prosecution and investigation of the federal crimes. Offences which are relatively minor are referred to as ‘Regulatory Offences’. The Australian and British principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty’ is seen here along with the requisite standard of proof being to prove the guilt ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. Canadian criminal law looks at crime from two aspects- intent and action. It is essential to prove both in most of the cases.

The criminal code is comprehensive and elaborate however there are certain subjects which are not covered under the code for which there are separate federal statutes. E.g.-Controlled Drugs and Substances Act are enacted.

Canada displays ‘Supremacy of the Constitution’ and all laws which are inconsistent to the Constitution, be them of civil or criminal nature, are to the extent of the inconsistency, of no effect. The Rule of Retrospective application of criminal laws does not exist. Additionally, the Courts follow precedents laid down in previous rulings to ensure that the rule of law is applied justly across cases. There exists a two-tier federal polity structure with the powers divided between the Federal government and the provincial government. The Parliament was granted powers to legislate Criminal laws including the procedural aspect of it. Similarly, the provinces have authority to legislate their own laws. In case of a dispute between the two, the laws passed by the Parliament shall prevail over those of the State. The appointment of Judiciary at both the Supreme Court and for the Provincial Courts is done at the Federal level.

The federal government of Canada, unlike Australia, has exclusive jurisdiction to enact criminal law and the provinces have the authority to administer it. The provinces have their own regulations, authority and procedure for quasi-criminal offences (regulatory offences)[7]. During administration of criminal law each province has specific powers with regards to appointment of judges for provincial court, hiring prosecutors etc.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

As mentioned above the criminal code not only incorporates conduct which constitutes offences but also procedures to be complied during the process. The preliminary portion of the code consists of offences dealing against property, against person, offences relating to sexual nature etc. Post that the code describes the procedures dealing with the aforesaid offences and the sentencing options. A special Act for offenders who are aged 18 or younger- The Young Offenders Act exists which stated that a child younger than 12 years cannot commit a crime. The Canadian criminal code has in the recent past focused intensively in looking after the needs of the victims and also at alternatives to truly reform the criminal.


In the recent past, due to significant shift in the functioning of the society there has been a paradigm shift in the social, economical and technological arenas which consequently resulted in advent of new offences dealing with information technology, banking system, credit card system etc.  requisite amendments have been made routinely to be abreast with the changes.

As with the British and Australian laws, the Canadian criminal jurisprudence considers a crime as an act that is committed against the entire society. The concept of Mens Rea or guilty mind which is a mainstay of the Common law is seen here though not with as much power. The term itself is not defined in the Criminal Code, yet a substantial number of judgments have required that the proof of guilt with the perpetrator be proved.

The countries like Canada, Australia consists of a specific punishment for specific crime whereas in England there is no such specific code. Punishments are decided by the statutes and Parliament from time to time while others are supervised under common law.

Learn more about Criminal Laws with Enhelion’s Online Law firm certified Master Course! 

No precise line for distinguishing between non-punishable preparation and punishable attempt has been made in any criminal or penal law system of any country. They say that any behaviour that generates any suspicion or apprehension in the mind of an observer is likely to be punishable in the eyes of law too.

[1] Means an accused cannot be charged for the same offence twice (also “non bis in idem”)

[2] Offences where defendant has a right to trial by jury

[3] Is a public official

[4] Series of Parliamentary Acts aiming at establishing supremacy of Anglican Churches

[5] Religious test for public offices, imposing penalties on Roman Catholics

[6] Freedom of worship to all non-conformists

[7] E.g.: driving with undue care and attention, illegal dumping of waste, etc.