Impact of Covid-19 on the Aviation Industry

By: Mayank Singh

Aviation is one of the most influenced industry during Coronavirus emergency which has happened because of magnitude of pandemic. This Pandemic has resulted large scale emergency which tends to suspension of flights and limitations on venture out universally to hinder the spread of infection. It is conceivable to watch the effect of COVID-19 on the flight business in every region including Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific and the remaining part of the world. In the country like United States, for instance, after the public Wellness crisis occurred due to COVID-19 episode, practically the entirety of the region is on outright lockdown, which Consequently, limits homegrown travel inside the nation. Nations like Spain, Italy, France, and India are under full lockdown and a wide scope of flights are ended until further notice.

A report of International Air Transport Association says that Aviation industry may endure misfortune on income as much as 113 billion dollar in this emergency. Around 4.2 billion explorers were carried around the globe in 2018, according to the World Bank Organisation. Fragments that were driving the flying business before the COVID-19 pandemic join expanding extra cash the whole course over the globe, the presentation of low-passage planes, developing by and large budgetary exercises, new travel plans, and some more. Besides, substitution of creating business plane has likewise contributed far and away to the market headway.

The primary elements affecting the aeronautics business since the pandemic remember the drop for visits and travel as an enormous number of global and homegrown flights are being dropped worldwide to check the infection’s transmission. Governments over the globe deny outsiders’ visas and lock up affected regions which is also one of the noteworthy purpose behind the log jam of the flying business. The International Aviation division has different portions of Air lines, from which, alongside cooking and other assistance giving firms, traveller aircraft section is required to get generally influenced.

Carrier organizations affecting the airplane producing businesses may likewise be seeing the crossing out of an airplane request in the short term. Driving flying organizations which are in effect universally affected incorporate Airbus, Qatar Airways, Lufthansa, China Eastern Airlines, Emirates, Boeing, American Airlines Group Inc. what’s more, Delta Air Lines. For evident reasons, Qatar Airways has suspended all of its trips to and from Italy it was one of the most noticeably terrible hit nations by the COVID-19 pandemic. The organization has consented to downsize its activity which incorporates diminishing flights and dispensing with less savvy airplane. As a prudent step of COVID-19 episode, Qatar Airways had grounded all its ten A380 airplane until 31 May 2020.

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Furthermore, owing to the pandemic, Emirates likewise finished much of its traveller traffic. By and by, the company looks for rescue classes by aircraft and air terminal guiding partnerships. In Europe , for example, air terminal supervisory organisations are reliant on the procurement of $15.4 billion missing due to a pandemic. It is researched that air terminals in Europe are expected to receive 700 million fewer passengers, 28 percent less than previously expected.

Turning to economical aspect, the phenomenal decrease in avionics and business activity has incapacitated air terminal income sources. In the subsequent quarter, the normal reduction in by and large air terminal incomes on a worldwide scale is figure at $39.2 billion (USD) and over $97 billion for 2020. Air terminals must continue meeting their capital costs responsibilities as they stay depicted by fantastically high repaired costs essential for keeping and working the system sections of the air terminal, including runways, runways, covers, halting stands and terminal structures. The impact of COVID-19 has hence achieved an existential peril to air terminals and to the flying industry unhindered.

The International Air Transport Association ( IATA) has resurrected its study of the financial effect of the general growth emergency of the novel (COVID-19) on the overall air transport market. IATA is also watching cumulative compensation events for the explorer company in 2020 of between $63 billion (in a situation where COVID-19 is contained in new business divisions and over 100 instances in current business divisions beginning at 2 March) And $113 billion (with the broader distribution of COVID-19 in this situation). No estimates of the effect on payload exercises are yet available.

The past IATA analysis (given on 20 February 2020) placed a $29.3 billion decline in income based on a condition that would see the benefit of COVID-19 largely limited to business sectors linked to China. The virus has spread to more than 80 nations since that time, and forward appointments on courses beyond China have been badly affected.

Budgetary sectors of the economy reacted positively. After the start of the flare-up, aircraft share prices have dropped by approximately 25 percent, with about 21 values concentrating more noteworthily than the drop that occurred at a similar point during the 2003 SARS emergency. To a large degree, this decline as of now costs a lot more remarkable than our previous inquiry in a stun to business profits.

To consider the developing circumstance with COVID-19, IATA assessed the likely effect on traveller incomes dependent on possible situations.

The unexplained extension attributable to COVID-19 is almost unimaginable. The possibilities of the company in a large part of the world have gotten ug in minimally more than two months. How the infection can expand is muddled, but whether we see the effects on a few industry sectors and a $63 billion income misfortune, or a more pervasive influence that triggers a $113 billion, loss of income in this pandemic.

“Numerous carriers are cutting limit and taking crisis measures to diminish costs. Governments must observe. Aircrafts are giving a valiant effort to remain above water as they play out the imperative undertaking of connecting the world’s economies. As governments look to upgrade gauges, the carrier business will require thought for help on duties, charges and space portion. These are uncommon occasions,” said Alexandre de Juniac, IATA’s Director General and CEO.

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Impact of Covid-19 on Indian Airlines.

In the budgetary year 2021, the Indian aeronautics division is probably going to lose up to $ 4 billion, warning firm CAPA India has stated, raising the misfortune gauge from the past $3.6 billion.

CAPA India likewise talked about a higher capitalization necessity for Indian carriers, up from $2.5 billion to $3.5 billion of every investigation delivered on July 3. Systematically, the organization said the Indian flight industry could be decreased from the greater part twelve, including Air India, IndiGo, Go Air and Spice Jet , to just a few players now.

“Restructuring seems more likely and would result in a very drastic shift in the industry ‘s structure. If timely recapitalization does not happen, India might be heading for a two-three airline market,” it added. Ongoing traffic has generally included fundamental repositioning traffic, with travellers that were stuck in an inappropriate spot when the lockdown was declared getting back to their headquarters. Optional travel has been restricted, as reflected in the way that in excess of 90 percent of appointments have been for single direction travel, contrasted with 40 percent earlier with COVID,” the report said.

Despite the fact that the administration has permitted carriers to work up to 45 percent of their mid year plan yet it has had little effect as traveller load drifts around the midway imprint. Passages, which have been topped inside a range, have would in general be nearer to the lower end of the band, CAPA India said.

Ahead of Covid-19, one of the fastest rising aviation markets in the world, India is bracing for rough days ahead. Market watchers fear that a complete lack of government support will trigger a shakedown of India’s airline industry, which could have a lasting impact on the once upbeat demand for jet fuel in the country. In seven of the last 10 years, having seen double-digit percentage rise, In the first half of 2020, Indian airlines saw passenger numbers collapse 50 percent year on year to 35.2 million, or the lowest since 2014.

Airfares have also been put under pressure due to a decline of almost 30 per cent in bookings to destinations hit by viruses. As a consequence, airfares to those destinations have declined by 20-30%. With domestic travellers postponing or cancelling their travel plans, domestic traffic growth is also steadily being impacted.

Many companies announced a decline in domestic travel this summer of more than 30 per cent compared to last year. Airfare has been reduced by 20-25% on common domestic routes and airfares are also expected to remain subdued for the summer season. Aircraft transporters’ money adjusts are coming up short and many are nearly insolvency. Likewise, the crisis could provoke loss of occupations and pay cuts. A couple of airplanes have requested various from their laborers to go on leave without pay. Air Deccan has suspended errands and sent laborers on unpaid leaves.

In the interim, the travel industry service has refered to Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) evaluations to recommend the loss of income to the travel industry can run between Rs 72,000 crore and Rs 1.58 lakh crores in 2020-21. As per the service, marked lodgings will endure the greatest shot in the travel industry area, trailed by visit administrators. In view of the fundamental gauges via airlines,the division might be set for a decrease of 50-60% in worldwide rush hour gridlock and up to a half drop in homegrown rush hour gridlock, the note said. It additionally included that “there may be a critical however brief loss of both immediate and circuitous positions in the division.”

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While a few carriers have begun tolerating advance appointments fully expecting facilitating of the lockdown after April 14. In resuming domestic operations, Indian carriers are using a hawk-eyed approach; however, the pace of PLFs would be a main concern. For both 30-day/15-day ticketing periods, the brokerage said its airfare tracker indicates average yield across subway routes has decreased by ~30 percent year to date.

According to flight regulator Directorate General of Civil Aviation, local air explorer traffic hung 82.3% in July differentiated and the very month a year back. From January to July, airplanes passed on a whole of 37.28 million voyagers, a rot of 54.84% appeared differently in relation to the relating time period a year back.

It likewise assessed that because of such misfortunes, “all things considered, some airplane may must be grounded” and “a critical decrease is additionally expected noticeable all around payload took care of at air terminals across India.” 


Aviation Industries are investing additional amounts of energy to guarantee appropriate sterilization and fumigation of air terminal terminals just as the purification of planes. Be that as it may, notwithstanding taking such prudent steps it is as yet hard to manage the dread ingrained in the psyches of travelers voyaging which consequently is influencing the general business of the flying business. On head of that, so as to control the spread of this deadliest infection government confined all worldwide trips to land in India. This will bring about loss of income and money related pressure.

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Analysis of Competition Law Issues in the Facebook-Jio Deal

By: Abishek TK

Jio – Facebook Crossover: A Financial Entente:

Facebook is one of the only apps used by almost 2.5 Billion users, making the social media platform the world’s largest. While Facebook conquers the world, Whatsapp conquers India with approximately 200 million users, making it the country’s largest. On 21st April 2020, Facebook CEO, Mark Zuckerberg, told the world that the Facebook was teaming up with Reliance Industries. Facebook had purchased a total of 9.99% stake in the Reliance Industries. The 5.7-billion-dollar deal pushes Reliance Industries ahead in its plans of facilitating the launch of its new commerce business. In 2019, Reliance Industries Chairman Mukesh Ambani had other primary contributors to his debt reduction plan with approximately $15 billion deal with Saudi Aramco for a 20% stake in Reliance Industries’ refining and petrochemicals business and a ₹7000 crore for a 49% sale in its fuel retail joint venture to a British firm BP. Usually, any merger between companies or corporations is a tedious process. Out of some approvals, be it regulatory or otherwise, the most critical one is the approval of Competition Commission of India. In order to complete a deal that crosses the thresholds given under Sec. 5 of the Competition Act, 2002[1], the approval by Competition Commission of India is compulsory. Another rule is that, Section 6(2) of the Competition Act, 2002, examined with Regulation 5 of the Combination Regulation confirms a suspensory reign, i.e., the approval must be obtained before the deal is finalized within the United States. Though the deal sounds bold and strong, which it does, can still encounter anti-trust issues. Starting with the multi-billion-dollar investment into Jio will have to be appraised and authorized by means of India’s opposition regulator. For this to happen, the Competition Commission of India will have to go forward and look at the proposed deal and verify that it does not cause appreciable adverse effect on competition within the marketplace. The responsibility of the Competition Commission of India is to analyze now not only the capacity of destructive results on competition how much ever additionally the capability worries it may offer upward rush to. It would be more intriguing and interesting to see if the minority stake purchase in India’s major telecom empire would provide any regulations to Facebook.

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Section 4 of Competition Act, 2002 sets down arrangements identifying with maltreatment of predominance which obviously expresses that a prevailing element ought not utilize its situation of solidarity to make hurt the contenders and customers in the business sectors of the nation. The Competition Act, 2002 in segment 19(4) has set out specific variables which help in deciding if an element is predominant in an applicable market or not. Prior to deciding if the arrangement among Facebook and Jio Platforms can prompt the act of maltreatment of strength by the two substances, it is basic to realize whether Facebook’s WhatsApp pay and Jio Platform’s JioMart are prevailing in their pertinent market or not.

Establishing Dominance:

Jio and Facebook are both emperors in their respective fields. According to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 32% stake is owned by Jio in the 1.15 billion Indian mobile services industry. It possesses the highest number of customer base and revenue-sharing share in the telecom industry. This means, Jio has an overall customer base of 369.93 million, exceeding its rivals, Bharti Airtel and Vodafone- Idea. Regarding Facebook, it basically operated via three platforms- Facebook, Instagram and Whatsapp. As for Whatsapp, it currently has a solid 400 million users in India[2]. These 400 million users are among the 600 million people who get right of entry of internet. A fragment of effectiveness compared to Whatsapp can be seen in applications like Hike, WeChat and Telegram.

JioMart is an online staple help which gives conveyance administrations of basic food item and fundamental things from close by kirana stores of the nation. JioMart right now works in just three spots of the nation for example Navi Mumbai, Thane and Kalyan. The important market of JioMart is by all accounts an online staple conveyance administration. It is appropriate to take note of that JioMart in this market has under 5% piece of the pie and furthermore is another major part in this market. It can influence neither the opposition nor the rivals in the online basic food item administration market of the nation. Subsequently, in the wake of investigating the components referenced in segment 19(4) of the Competition Act, 2002, it tends to be reasoned that JioMart is certainly not a prevailing part in its important market.

Jio is looking forward to revolutionize ‘JioMart’ in order to merge small and medium sized ‘kirana’ businesses. This would firstly enhance mother-pop shops within the domestic and local markets by tying them to the digital platforms. Once this is over, it would try to penetrate another market by utilizing the dominance of Whatsapp. If all these are successful, Whatsapp might allow JioMart to function through the messaging platform itself. If this is carried out in the manner that Whatsapp comes with default JioMart platform, it could cause an abuse of dominance under Section 4(2)(d) as downloading Whatsapp would be the main agreement the JioMart will be kind of a given in itself. The disadvantage in that kind of a strategy is, customers will not be able to use any other embed e-commerce portal on Whatsapp. This will become unfair and cause disturbances in the market as it might leave the customers with no choice but to accept the given deal.

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The said deal may have an impact on payment apps due to the establishment of Whatsapp Pay project long-stalled by Facebook. The partnership with Jio will establish the payment service for itself. Once Whatsapp Pay enters the field, industry players like Google Pay, Paytm, and Pay will face a tough competition. People will easily be able to text and pay simultaneously without switching apps. To keep things in balance, the Competition Commission of India will have to consider whether Facebook and Jio would become dominant in the relevant markets, potentially abusing the dominant position in order to monopolize the field using Whatsapp Pay. Since the combined power of Jio and Facebook would make it difficult for any other platform to compete, the CCI should analyze whether it would be likely that any anti-competitive acts by Jio or Facebook would create new monopoly in the other relevant markets.

Appreciable Adverse Effect on Competition:

Determining the resources and market positions of the combines techno-heads is difficult, especially in the technology sector. Google LLC[3], CCI found that there is a need to now not only depict the standard applicable marketplace but also related to relevant markets which have been anguished by the behavior of the concerned parties. Section 20 (4) lists that factors that the Competition Commission of India should not forget to include if there is any substantial destructive effect on the competition arising from the said combination.

The quintessence of this combination is to check for horizontal or vertical overlaps. If there is no appearance of horizontal overlaps, there is a strong possibility of vertical integration. For example, Jio introduces internet access to smartphones, smartphones with internet can access Whatsapp, which can ultimately be combined with JioMart. Though this is not the ideal vertical integration, but the use of dominant function in a single market to move into a new marketplace would possibly be to have an adverse effect on the natural competition in the ‘physical’ trade market. Strategic investment, when seeks to impale a specific segment by making use of the leverage on their respective fields to arrive at a completely new product, criteria has to be comprehensive in order to check and verify the potential adverse effect on competition, if any. The United States court imposed 5 billion dollars fine on Facebook for violation of privacy is itself a warning on the Indian regulators to intervening in this a way achieving the deal specifically, to protect the Indian Start-Up movement, which is probably an important bulkhead of the Digital India ship.

Platform Neutrality:

Platform Neutrality, as the name proposes, comprises of impartiality toward any item showed on a market. This standard is abused in occurrences of combination, in which the stage holds a double job through acting each as a mediator and a commercial center contender. Since the stage is a pool of customer insights, it offers the owner business endeavor and side to improve its administrations through dominatingly dispensing bogus hunt rankings and serving one-sided pointers sooner than its customers. Courses of action like these outcomes in the special treatment being concurred to the office’s in-living arrangement cloud kitchen brands, building up an irregularity in the reasonable resistance in the pertinent zone.

It is appropriate to take note that the monstrous e-exchange associations, for example, Amazon and Flipkart have constantly been underneath the examination of the Courts for disregarding the stage impartiality strategies. All India Online Vendors Association had blamed each of those organizations for manhandling their strength inside the relevant commercial center by giving special solutions for there to some degree possessed producers. After due examinations concerning this depends, the CCI had unnoticed the cases of them disregarding any popular rivalry standards. Notwithstanding, rehashed charges by the method of equivalent organizations made the NCLAT award a test into this issue again.

Network Effect:

The Network Effect, additionally called network externality, is the increase picked up by method of the officeholder clients while an additional individual joins the gathering. Its utilization is particularly generally far reaching inside the time area in which the enormous network is a bit of leeway to the clients and the got data fills in as a little something extra for its proprietor. Henceforth, there lies no competition inside the truth that having an enormous base of records can bring about an endeavor achieving a prevailing situation inside the market. This predominance, in sure occasions, can go about as an essential for organizations in leading enemy of forceful conduct. The organizations with the guide of keeping up their matchless quality in a solitary pertinent market contribution to each other material market, in this manner mishandling its energy to develop predominant in both those business sectors. Such moves are named as utilizing and are denied underneath Section four(2)(e) of the Competition Act, 2002 (“the Act”).

Carefully predominant associations like Google have utilized their strength in the past, utilizing its got realities to sell its own administrations for example Google Flights, Google Maps, etc. The creators battle that the arrangement whenever did, might be each other case of this type of misuse. As each Facebook and Jio are at prevailing situations in their particular business sectors, they have an unbridled admittance to realities which can be utilized for their own one of a kind business advantage. For example, WhatsApp by means of its settlement with JioMart can assemble a tremendous heap of data at the admission styles of the customers in India, which later can be used for the ad of the JioMart stage through Facebook. Also, if WhatsApp goes to a choice to make Jio Payments Bank on the grounds that the on line UPI-principally based value elective, it’ll achieve Reliance Companies accessing its total client base, which incorporate the records of its adversary telecom partnerships. Each one of those points of interest blended have the capacity of making Jio and its auxiliaries predominant exclusively dependent on the realities that it recognizes associations own, subsequently which remember it for the ambit of utilizing underneath Indian Competition Act.

Deep Discounting:

Deep Discounting, normally named as ruthless evaluating, happens while a monetarily wealthy organization costs its item at a significantly decline charge contrasted with the contrary organizations inside the commercial center. While the partnerships secure such developments as a component of their expansion approach, the overwhelming development inside the reliance of its client’s outcomes in them achieving a place of intensity, unjustly. This can be mounted by method of depending on Section 19(4)(f) of the Act, which offers for ‘buyer reliance’ as one of the justification for evaluating the predominance of an organization. So as to downsize the burden of such enemy of forceful tendencies, such estimating has been described as maltreatment of strength under Section four(2)(a)(ii) of the Act, making it violative of the standards that ensure honest rivalry in the business sectors.

Jio, inside the past, has been blamed for savage valuing for its net administrations. In truth, following this system, it has developed to be one in everything about most significant telecom producers in India. Subsequently, the creators battle that the arrangement has the capacity of monetarily backing the stage to present profound limits for their items, building up a tremendous distinction in the expenses inside the market. This differential valuing by method of drawing in the clients by means of its uncommon decreases can pressure out the contrary e-staple brands inside the relevant commercial center. While these limits may prompt a fast time-frame advantage for its clients, the minimization in their decisions will achieve a drawn out misfortune. JioMart by utilizing sorting out its imposing business model will in the end be equipped for help its expenses unnecessarily, in this way constraining its customers to search for their items at some random charges.

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The objective of Competition Act, 2002 is to guarantee the free progression of exchange and keep the elements from stopping rivalry on the lookout. In the 21st century, the idea of shopper government assistance can’t be deserted in any of the situations. The intensity of the CCI gave by the Competition Act, 2002 is restricted to a degree. Indian Competition Law doesn’t punish endeavor to turn into a prevailing element and this is the greatest downside.

In the current arrangement, Facebook and Jio Platforms through its administrations WhatsApp Pay and JioMart separately will endeavor to get prevailing in their pertinent market by utilizing unscrupulous strategic policies. Notwithstanding, CCI can’t stop such practices because of absence of arrangements in the Competition Act, 2002. The ideal opportunity for a change has shown up and the Indian Legislature should embed such arrangements in the demonstration so as to enable the CCI to manage such unreasonable practices in the nation.

[1] Section 5, Competition Act, 2002.

[2] Manish Singh, WhatsApp reaches 400 million users in India, Tech Crunch, (26.07.2020),

[3] Umar Javeed v. Google LLC, Case No. 39 of 2018, dated 16-4-2019.


Comparative Study of Laws relating to Corporate Governance in USA, UAE and UK

By: Parul Sagar

  • What is Corporate Law?

Corporate law is the array of laws, rules, rules, and practices that manage the course of action and action of organizations. It’s the gathering of law that guides legitimate components that exist to lead business. The laws address the rights and responsibilities of the aggregate of people related with molding, having, working, and managing an endeavor.

  • Corporate governance –

Corporate administration is the blend of rules, cycles or laws by which organizations are worked, directed or controlled. The term incorporates the inside and outer variables that influence the interests of an organization’s partners, including investors, clients, providers, government controllers and the board


In January 2020, new guidelines came into the image by the name of Organizations Guidelines, 2020. These were delivered by DMCC (Dubai Multi Items Center) and Legislature of Dubai. These standards have been given for the solace and adaptability of the current organizations just as the organizations to be set up later on in the deregulation zone. These are the corporate consistence rules gave by the experts in Dubai.


The US of America directs enterprises on three distinct levels, neighbourhood, state, and government. While neighbourhood and state fluctuate, the government corporate consistence laws are a bunch of cover laws to be followed as essential compliances. What’s more, the nearby, just as the state laws, apply. These base principles by the government are illustrated in the Protections Demonstration of 1993 and the Protections and Trade Demonstration of 1934. The US Constitution permits a partnership to set up in any state and not with respect to where the settle of the organization is arranged.

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  • UK Corporate Governance

It expressed that various guidelines, suggestions and rules structure the guideline of corporate administration inside the UK, for example, custom-based law rules, for example, trustee obligations of chiefs, protected reports of an organization including notice and articles of affiliation, sculpture explicitly Organizations Act 1985, the posting rules applying to all organizations recorded on the Point Rules or Authority Rundown, the Consolidated Code on

Corporate Administration; however, the Code’s arrangements are not fundamental, yet it is obligatory

for the recorded organizations to give their yearly report an announcement displaying consistence with the Code and give reasons if not agreeing. Keasey, Thompson and Wright (2005) found that the Code is joined by the Smith Direction alluding review boards and evaluators; the Turnbull Direction identified with

Code’s inner control necessity and the Higgs Audit and proposed proposals of good practices. Besides, non-legitimate rules appropriated by bodies speaking to institutional financial specialists, for example, ABI PIRC (the Benefits and Venture Exploration Experts and NAPF are basic. All the recorded organizations will undoubtedly follow these rules. Likewise, in the event of public organizations’ takeovers, Mergers and the guidelines of the Takeover alongside the City Code on Takeovers are relevant. Also, Code of Market Direct of Budgetary Administrations Authority is significant as it identifies with the data exposure, which is profoundly delicate and secret and on the off chance that it isn’t followed, it may prompt make a bogus market.


The business laws of the USA and UAE vary on numerous grounds. Starting with the language of the agreements, in the USA, the English language works fine when agreements are considered. In any case, in the UAE, any agreement which is in the English language must be deciphered in Arabic also. In a circumstance where a debate emerges, the content written in Arabic is treated over the English language text. This may make an issue for English talking partnerships.

In the USA, enterprises are represented at different levels, i.e., government law, state law, and the nearby law. Then again, in the UAE, an individual body chooses the guidelines and all the companies need to hold fast to it. In the USA, cover rules are given to be clung to and further the state applies the relatable principles alongside the organizations which fuse rules into their by-laws. With the end goal of tax collection, each level forces its own assessment which the company needs to pay. State laws are distinctive in each of the 50 states. This expands the multifaceted nature of the cycle of business. The partnership is limited by first the government rules, at that point the state rules, lastly the neighborhood rules. UAE has a uniform framework. The administration alongside specific organizations chooses the guidelines for all the organizations and there is no middle level. Both for the terrain organizations too the ones in streamlined commerce zones, there is just one level at which the guidelines are set down just as the duty strategy is taken.

In UAE, the business and the part of the business are treated as independent substances and the income created from the branch is considered as the income of the branch itself, though, in the USA, the branch is treated as a piece of the business and not a unit of the business. Henceforth, the assessment to be charged on that specific branch is charged on that of the entire business.

The basic rules of the UAE give restricted obligation to the investors of the organization as the business and the investors are viewed as independent substances. USA gives a choice to the proprietors of the partnership to either get burdened independently on the business and the investor’s pay similarly as UAE or the other alternative is get the business income likewise burdened as the proprietor’s very own pay. Nonetheless, for the subsequent choice, certain conditions are to meet.

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The two nations have no base capital prerequisites. Yet, UAE, may in specific exercises set out a base capital of AED 50,000.

Decisively, the correlation of corporate administration practices and laws of the UK and the U.S. are comparable or there is an identical norm. In any case, for organizations and their in-house guiding, the changing essence of the authoritative scene of the two nations advances numerous difficulties. Truth be told, after the disastrous budgetary emergency of 2008 and 2009, the laws request completely recorded organizations to hold fast to code of morals and related laws and guidelines. Taking everything into account, it has been reliable with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and 2004 Act; be that as it may, for non-U.S. firms, SEC has been exceptionally obliging giving them an open door through exclusions to cultivate their organizations as they may confront clashing difficulties in view of neighborhood laws. In the U.S., SOX assume a significant part for successful corporate administration while in the UK, Demonstration 2004, Smith Direction and different laws cooperate to straightforward monetary detailing

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Software Licensing Agreements and the Clauses Covered Under it

By: Subham Saurabh

A software license agreement is an agreement/contract between a company and the user of that software who has the rights to use. It laydowns details for the users how to exactly run and use the particular software. The agreement tells a user how the software can be installed and what is the procedure to install it also how many times a user can install it. It additionally has clauses for the intellectual property rights (IPR) through which users know the copying, modifying and redistributing policy of the software. Thus, to prevent any kind of infringement of IPR a software owner needs to have a software license agreement with their customers.

The software license agreement does not have any particular format, the agreement differs as much as the software if there is a change in the software the agreement has to be changed. There is novation in the contract as soon as there is a software change. A software license agreement is important for both the licensor and the licensees along with the other stakeholders who have interest in the software as it lay downs the important clauses, jurisdiction, rights, modification, transferability etc. As an owner, a lot of money and time is being invested in developing the software and it is always in the mind of the developer that he could derive some monetary benefits out of it. If one individual is putting so much effort, he or she must put an effort to protect his or her IPR and other related rights. Here a software license agreement comes in the picture. Below are the reasons why to have a license agreement.

  1. It limits the liability: It is one of the most important parts of the agreement since if an owner did not limit his liability as to the software developer, then he is exposing himself for a lawsuit, people all the times are ready to file frivolous lawsuits and demand compensations for no real reason. Such lawsuits not only waste the money but also precious time. If a developer limits his liability though an agreement, he is ensuring the others from filing frivolous lawsuits as they have agreed to the software terms as soon as they buy it or in some case download it. Limiting liability can be from both sides.
  2. The agreement prevents others to sell it: Such an agreement with the customers restrict them to copy the software and redistribute it to others. There is also a huge difference between the developer licensing the software and not selling it. When the owner sells the software to a user, the owner still has all the rights also the owner can restrict the use. By this way, the developer/ owner has more control over the software in contract to the actual user of the software. For the long run and to derive more monitory benefit from the software the owner should not sell the rights of software rather license it.
  3. The license agreement allows the developer to terminate at any time: The owners have an extra advantage clause at their rescue which may state that owner can terminate the license at any period of use. The clause may also provide the owner to terminate it without providing any explanation. This is another important clause which helps the owners to maintain comprehensive control over the software at all times. At any time if licensor wishes to revoke the license and institute a suit instead, he can refer the licensee this particular clause.
  4. It avoids misappropriation of software: The hackers and such person who are always ready to make a replicate or a copy an individual’s intellect are always at the hurry to do it if the owner fails to have an agreement with the users. There is very less probability that others can sell the software however if a pirated version is circulated it would be a huge loss. A person would not buy the software if he is getting it for free and it will be unfair to the developer and owners.
  5. License agreement permits to disclaim warranties: Nothing can be in software, no matter what a developer do there is always an error with the technology it may be a bug, crash or downtime etc. and such errors allows a user to dissatisfactions. The license agreement may have clauses which would contain a disclaimer from such errors for which the user would eventually escape the liability.

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Main Section included in the Software License Agreement

Fundamentally, there are four primary sections for software license agreement and these four sections provide key information which is essential to the accomplishment of a software license agreement which is as follows:

  1. General Information – In the first section, we will get information about the execution of the agreement that when it will go into effect, for what duration of time the software will be active and what is the type of this agreement. This is the key part of any agreement although it provides general information because it sets the tone for the whole agreement.
  2. Parties Involved – This particular section provides information about the parties who are going to agree. When any person or company enters with the developer company or owner company of software the agreement must detail both the company or individual’s details. The full name and complete addresses and other key information should also be included in such agreement. Also, it is essential to state whether the party who is forming the agreement is a company or an individual.
  3. Terms of the agreement – This section includes all the other primary information regarding the terms of the agreement. Information such as price to be paid for using the software, information about the maintenance, support, warranty if any etc. will be listed which are offered by the software company. The other information that “whether you will be including the code along with the license and if it is a site license or not” is included.
  4. Fine details – The last section included all the miscellaneous details which are missed out in above three sections of the software license agreement. This section is drafted more carefully and according to the specific situation instead of wide clauses. At last, where the agreement is signed along with the dates are mentioned.

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Important Clauses of Software License Agreements

The above four-section provides the overview in brief of what features a user can assume from any general software license agreement. However, the company or developer to exclude its unsolicited liability and frivolous suits should include other key clauses which will guarantee their protection from liability in future also. It is important to include such clauses in the license agreement as the future is unpredictable and anything can happen, and from this unpredictable situation, the agreement must guarantee protection. Below is the list of such clauses:

  • Limitation of liability – It is one of the important clauses as it limits the software owner’s liability form uncertain future events. This clause laid down that the fact that the user should accept the software without any changes from the third party and they will not be able to claim any injury compensation, also it may be stated that no warranty could be claimed from the software and the usage.
  • Non-exclusivity –When a licensor wants to license the software to an individual or a company, he should make sure that the agreement has the clause that does not leave details that the rights of the licensee are non-exclusive. By providing such a clause in the agreement the software will the developers to stay longer in the market with the product and make a profit from the software.
  • Non-transferability – This is another important clause from the point of view of earning the profit. The non-transferability clause helps to restrict if the developer did not want the license to be transferred to another third party. If not restricted it will allow the licensee to transfer the software to any other person or even business that will amount to a loss of profit and future clients. Lastly, developers will not like to come in force in a situation where they have to deal with the agreement with such a party with whom they have not contracted with.
  • Rights – Every information that the right to the software will remain the property of the licensor even after execution of understanding will be included in this clause. This clause also includes the original programming, the name, the copyright, the trademarks rights, and all other intellectual property rights. Licensor does not want somebody else buying a permit to then steals any crucial information regarding the software and creates its monetary benefit. This is a significant consideration since it secures owner item from its users.
  • Modification Clause– If the developer does not permit the software to be novated in any capacity toward the back, then it should make that reasonable with a provision which states as much and subtleties what the expression ” modification ” signifies for this agreement. Except if this is what the software owner wants to occur, it will probably just purpose issues for them afterwards. The best option available is to the limit any modification, if not limit them. Because this is a software license agreement, this isn’t typically normal. Your users will probably comprehend that the product is made in that manner in which it is and will remain that way.
  • Breach of agreement – The owner has to incorporate a provision which expresses that on the off chance that any terms are not followed, at that point it will bring about a breach of agreement where a developer can renounce the agreement, therefore. The user does not want that breach of an agreement to happen, yet for the situation that it does, it ought to have this set up so it can assume back responsibility for the software product and better ensure it.
  • Number of Device-Based upon how the developer permits the software if the developer incorporates that the licensee is permitted to utilize the software on one single PC or numerous PCs in a similar area, for example, the corporate area. This keeps organizations from exploiting the software and attempt to need more at the price they paid. It is not common that all licensee will attempt to find a sneaky tricky path around, however in the case that they do, it is ensured that developer has this point by point so there is no doubt.
  • Terms of the end – this clause must be included in the agreement as if the developer or user need to end the understanding, this provision will detail the moves that must be made by the licensee or otherwise. This is by and large something like terminating the software on-site or uninstalling it from the gadget. Also, it to likewise incorporate that the software can be ended or terminated whenever and, in any capacity, whatsoever with no consequences.
  • Governing law – The last important clause which should be included in the details about the administering law for settling any disputes. No one wants to wind up in the Court that is far away from his state of location or is in another jurisdiction. Also, the last thing important is to ensure that this recorded as a written so that any court procedures will just occur in you’re the choice of jurisdiction.

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Analysis of Cyber Laws in USA, UAE and Germany

By: Anamika G

 With the advent of the Information Revolution and the dawn of the Artificial Intelligence driven world of the Internet of things, the Global Internet community has witnessed a sporadic expansion of the virtual space. From Business to education to travel and recreation, the Cyber world is today’s generation’s first and last resort. Unsettlingly, however, users’ extreme dependence on the internet for day-to-day activities without being chary of the potential caveats it harbours has been a matter of concern. While the internet has indeed unleashed hitherto impossible possibilities to fuel human efficiency, the vastness of the World Wide Web has also spawned concerns around ‘security’ in the Cyber Space.

Consequently, sovereign nations of the world have presented a modest attempt to chart frameworks regarding their part of the borderless cyberspace in order to ensure that their citizens’ rights and national security and sovereignty is protected, as in the physical world. To that end, the recent decades have seen the formulation of numerous Cyber laws that enumerate the regulatory guidelines and the limits and protections in the virtual world. These laws include protection of intellectual property rights, freedom of speech, and public access to information, among others[1]. Among the existing Cyber laws and policies across the world, there are similarities as well as differences.

Of these, United States of America has the oldest and arguably the most robust cyber laws and cyber security frameworks. In Germany, there is a fast advancing cyber security technology and legal architecture, whereas the United Arab Emirates is an emerging arena for cyber security practices. Cybercrimes and frauds cause huge financial losses and security threats to the internet and economic ecosystems in these countries, to combat which the existing laws, although useful, are insufficient. Also, while each of these countries have delineated legal frameworks that lend themselves to national contexts, attention should also be given to voicing the need for a comprehensive and universally recognised international cyber law framework. Through a comparative study of the Cyber laws in the aforementioned three countries, this paper shall attempt to provide a critical analysis of the cyber security practices of three powers in the virtual arena.

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 The U.S views cyberspace as an integral component of all facets of American life, including their economy and defence[2]. Being the cradle of the Internet and a superpower in the cyber domain, U.S was also among the first to discover the lethal threats that lay entwined in World Wide Web. Hence, the country has time and again returned to the question of legal regulations on the seemingly ‘un-governable’ cyberspace. As a product of continuing deliberations, the country now has a robust cyber la infrastructure.

In the U.S cyber-security concerns are tackled at the federal level through sector-specific statutes and regulations. The main cyber-security regulations include the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the 1999 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, and the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). While the HIPAA addresses concerns in the health sector, The FISMA maintains cyber-security standards for federal government agencies and their contractors.  Some other statutes are specific to a single subject matter like the Veterans Affairs Information Security Enhancement Act[3], passed in 2006 and they focus closely on a single government agency, which, in this case is the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Besides, populous states like Massachusetts, New York and California already have diverse individual cyber laws.

Some laws, however, have been subject to criticism for being too regulatory and invasive. For instance, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) enacted by Congress in 1986, which makes it a crime to access and subsequently share protected information, have been widely criticized for being too restrictive and dis-incentivising legitimate security research[4]. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act was passed in 1986 allows the U.S. government to access electronic communications such as email, social media messages, and more with a subpoena[5].

Furthermore, given that challenges in the cyberspace are becoming complex and multi-sectoral by the day, an acute need as felt for a uniformly defined national cyber security framework. The existence of cyber regulations at multiple levels and sectors has affected compliance, as companies must wade through different federal and state laws. Thus, in 2018, US President Donald Trump signed into law the Cyber security and Infrastructure Security Agency Act of 2018[6]. In addition to this, U.S has actively pushed the case for international cooperation and some uniformity in regulations in order to face the growing challenges in the cyberspace today.

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Germany has a long history and well implemented tradition of data privacy and the right to personal freedom. German data protection laws are strict and governmental rights to observe people in the cyberspace are limited. However, as cyber-attacks on companies and individuals are becoming much more prevalent, legal developments and deliberations show the necessary, but difficult balancing act between safety and freedom in cyberspace.

Cyber security is governed by several acts in Germany. Sec. 202a and 303a of the Strafgesetzbuch [German penal code] protects data and communication against misuse, hacking and sabotage. Section 303b of the same Code directs punitive action against computer sabotage[7]. The main legal act relating to cyber security is the German IT Security act of 2015. Under the act, Critical infrastructure operators are required to adhere to a minimum level of IT security as well as to report any IT security incidents to the Federal Office for Information Security [BSI], which is Germany’s national Cyber security agency. Also, every company in Germany which processes personal data is subject to the surveillance of either the federal or one of the 16 local data protection authorities

In 2017, Germany passed its new Federal Data Protection Act (Datenschutz-Anpassungs- und -Umsetzungsgesetz EU, the Act). The Act implements the European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and entered into force on 25 May 2018[8] It replaced the former German Data Protection Act (BDSG). Although the Act is only a supplement to the GDPR, it includes various additional provisions that need to be followed: the appointment of Data Protection Officers (DPOs), sensitive personal data, the rights of data subjects; the change of the purpose of processing; video surveillance; fines and sanctions; creditworthiness and scoring etc.

So far, the German legal system has been able to put a good fight against the pressing problems of cybercrime. However, as the German data privacy regime is one of the strictest worldwide[9], the trade-off between security and freedom in cyberspace is a nuanced arena. Nevertheless, Germany has put in a robust cyber law regime to defend it digital sovereignty and data security.



  The UAE, though an emerging economy, has increasingly been targeted by cybercriminals in the recent past[10] owing to its high levels of economic activity, booming oil industry and fast-paced technological advancements. For instance, one of the major threats during the recent COVID-19 pandemic was sinister cyber-attacks launched by hackers on the servers of the companies thereby causing fear and financial insecurities[11]. Catching up with the time, UAE also has one of the most comprehensive cyber law structures in the Arabian-Middle east region.

The UAE-Law No. 5 of 2012, better known as the Cyber Crimes Law 2012, deals with the Combating of Information Technology Crimes. This law replaced the earlier Cyber Crimes Law 2006.

The UAE CERT (Computer Emergency Response Teams) was established under the supervision of Telecom Regulatory Authority of UAE to help the Government for cyber security information sharing and improving the overall Cyber Security condition in the country. They collaborate with different law enforcement agencies to design policies and methodologies to counter the Cyber Threats. aeCERT collaborates and shares data with other countries CERTS around the globe, which provides opportunities for researchers to improve the posture of information security. UAE’s National Electronic Security Authority (NESA) is the federal body set up to oversee the country’s cyberspace.

The National Cyber Security Strategy 2019 of UAE aims to ‘create a safe and strong cyber infrastructure in the UAE that enables citizens to fulfil their aspirations and empower businesses to thrive.’[12] . The legal framework will cover data privacy and protection, artificial intelligence, block chain, cloud services, and digital signatures etc.


From an analysis of the Cyber security legislations and practicing the three countries – USA, UAE, and Germany – Cyber safety is an actively discussed domain in the develop world as well as emerging economies. While all three nations have certain fundamental regulations in common, there are areas of differences as well. Germany, for instance, has a relatively strict policy on protection of citizens’ privacy which puts limits on states surveillance practices.

Considering the rapid advances in technology, cyber-security is still an evolving realm, which requires nation states to be constantly vigilant about emerging threats while concomitantly correcting the existing ambiguities in the Cyber laws.

At the same time, because Internet is a ‘Borderless’ ecosystem, mere national legislations will not solve the issue of cross border cyber terrorism, fraud or conflicts in determining jurisdictions. Hence, there is a need for international basic law that creates a basic uniform cyber law practice across the nations. Therefore, an effort by the three countries that are cognisant of the importance of cyber safety to make allowance for international cooperation in their cyber-security legislations should be forthcoming.

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[1] US Legal, I. (n.d.). Find a legal form in minutes. Retrieved November 13, 2020, from

[2] The White House, 2018, National Cyber Strategy for USA. Retrieved November 8,2020 from [pg.3]

[3] Craig, L. (2006, December 22). S.3421 – 109th Congress (2005-2006): Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. Retrieved November 8, 2020, from

[4] Reforming the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. (2018, July 30). Retrieved November 09, 2020, from

[5] Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986. (n.d.). Retrieved November 09, 2020, from

[6] McCaul, M. (2018, November 16). H.R.3359 – 115th Congress (2017-2018): Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Act of 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2020, from

[7] Cyber Crime Law. (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2020, from

[8] Federal Data Protection Act of 30 June 2017 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 2097), as last amended by Article 12 of the Act of 20 November 2019 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1626). (n.d.). Retrieved November 10, 2020, from

[9]Germany: Land of Data Protection and Security – But Why? (2018, December 05). Retrieved November 11, 2020, from

[10] Freelance, M. (2020, May 19). Four of five organisations in UAE faced at least one ‘cyber-attack’ in  2019-study. Retrieved November 11, 2020, from

[11] Sanderson, D. (2020, April 26). Coronavirus: Cyber criminals launch Covid-19 attack barrage. Retrieved November 11, 2020, from

[12] National Cyber Security Strategy. (2019). Retrieved November 11, 2020, from


Role of Intellectual Property In Artificial Intelligence

By: Sweta Mishra


There has been a huge advancement in the sphere of technology and moreover, huge resources are being invested may it be by human beings/organisations into these advancements.  The term “Artificial Intelligence” was coined by John McCarthy in a conference in the year 1956 which meant “science and engineering of making machines-intelligent machines that can process and interpret language; mine and analyse data; and create artistic and original works”.[1]

British and United States Governments had invested huge amount of resources into AI during 1956 and 1980 and thus, it was considered as a golden period for the AI. In the first place, AI is attractive for information collection due to three factors- speed, scale and automation. The speed at which AI performs calculations is much faster than that of human analysts and can also be constantly improved by more hardware addition. AI is capable of using large data sets for analysis as well and is perhaps the only way in which big data is processed in a reasonable amount of time. Finally, the designed tasks can be carried out without supervision, which considerably improves the efficiency of analysis.

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Many consumer products have functions that make them susceptible to AI data use. In order to make the situation worse, people often ignore how much data they produce process or share with their software and devices and as we are increasingly dependent on digital technology in our daily lives, the potential for exploitation only increases. Voice-recognition and recognition of the face are two ways of recognising AI’s performance and these methods are capable of seriously compromising public anonymity. Moreover, AI can use sophisticated algorithms for machine learning to draw sensible data from non-sensitive data forms. AI not only carries out data collection tasks. The data can also be used as input to sort, classify, evaluate and grade people. AI can be further used for identifying, Tracking and monitoring individuals, whether on- the job, at home or in public plays across several devices. This allows to de-anonymize your personal information on the basis of inferences from other. This flushes the distinction that is to be maintained in accordance with present legislation between personal and non-personal data. Moreover, AI is used to make recipes, make designs for clothing purpose and also helps in making music. It is predicted that these AI and other machines may be considered as the creators and drivers of these unique innovations though, it is considered to be impossible in order to gain rights over such creations on behalf of AI and in this way, Intellectual property law’s role comes to action in case of Artificial Intelligence.


The government grants every creation of an intellect certain exclusive right for its creation and the holder is able to protect his property that includes literature, music, symbols, brands, inventions and innovations for a certain period of time, preventing others from tampering it. These rights, included widely in the property rights, are known as Intellectual Property Rights. Starting with the Harappa civilization, the scavenged potteries had special marks that determined the maker’s ideology and ownership. In Germany, special privileges were given to the constructors of model mills to store grains. The establishment of the Paris convention from the evolvement of the Vienna exhibition led to the recognition of protection of Intellectual Property Rights. In India, the Act VI on protection of inventions of 1856 surpassed the British Patent Law of 1852. The latter was the basis of creation of the latter. Since then, there have been many modifications in the Act based on the necessity of making stricter rules for protection of creation of work. Act VI was modified into Act XV whereby, regulations were made to reconsider the 14year period granted to inventors for protection of their creations. In 1872, the Act was renamed into the Patents and Design Protection Act, followed by the Protection of Inventions Act, 1883 and The Inventions and Designs Act and The Indian Patens and Designs Act, in 1888 and 1911 respectively. The right to Intellectual Property is not a right provided for tangible objects but also for the mind considered as a property. Intellectual property can also be described as ‘knowledge goods’ which was mentioned in the case of Bayer Corporation v. Union of India and Others[2]. The main reason of providing laws to protect intellectual property by many countries is to promote designing and innovation to furnish the social and economic development. Intellectual property is broadly divided into two subsets, Copyright and industrial property. Copyright persists in original literary, musical and artistic works, cinematograph films, sound recording, etc. in India. Whereas industrial property specifically deals with inventions and creations of human mind which includes patents, trademarks, integrated circuits, geographical indications and protection against unfair competition.[3]

Conventions based on IPR:

In 1960, United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property [Bureaux Internationaux Réunis pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectually (BIRPI)], was shifted from Berne to Geneva for increasing awareness of protection of IPR and bringing it in the consideration of United Nations. Later, the name of the international organization United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property was changed to World Intellectual Property organization (WIPO).[4]

WIPO was signed in Stockholm on July14, 1967 and came into force in 1970 with an amendment in 1979. The two main objectives of WIPO were to promote the protection of IPR worldwide and to ensure administrative cooperation among the intellectual property Unions established by the treaties that WIPO administers.[5] In 2002, WIPO organized a study regarding IPR on the Internet. The survey focused on the international aspects of the effect of Internet evolution on IPR rights and duties of related individuals and organizations. In the process, the techno-savvy world has reorganized the very basis of copyright jurisprudence, thereby shattering the basic laws pertaining to it. Hence, the survey explains about the need to adhere to the set legal rules and ensure that technology and Internet do not undermine the basic tenets of copyright and related rights. Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works (1886).

The Berne convention is based three important principles:

  1. Works originated by an author in a particular state must be given the same protection in

each of the other contracting states.

  1. Protection must not be conditional upon compliance with any formality.
  2. If contracting State provides for a longer term of protection than the minimum prescribed by the Convention and the work ceases to be protected in the country of origin, protection may be denied once protection in the country of origin ceases.[6]

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There has been a paradigm shift which is being experienced by AI in its theory application to commercial application.   According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (‘WIPO’), “early 340,000 patent families related to artificial intelligence [have been] published from 1960 until early 2018.”[7] The Copyright Law also tries in protection of the software codes which are an integral part of the AI programming. As a matter of fact, these AI algorithms which aren’t easy to be reversed are entitled to protection under the scope of trade secrets and thus the Trademark Law intends in protection of the names of such robots.

It is pertinent to mention here that the existing Intellectual Property rights affect the Artificial Intelligence in some way or other. IBM has the largest portfolio of AI patents with 8,290 patent applications, followed by Microsoft with 5,930 patent applications.[8] The creators/owners of original works not only intend to acquire Intellectual Property rights but also exploit such rights in the Artificial Intelligence mode of technologies. For instance, “the Chinese Academy of Science has between 2008 and 2016 transferred and transformed 7,000 IP assets (transfer, license, self-implementation, price-for-share, technology development and technical services) with a contract value of more than RMB12 billion”[9]. Therefore, it can be said that the Intellectual Property Law not only protects the inventions but also prevents exploitation of such rights in the inventions pertaining to AI. The invention needs to be novel and should be capable enough for industrial production in order to be patented under the existing laws and provisions of India.

The question of difficulty arises when the AI technologies and AI inventions start playing a role in creation of certain works. As seen earlier, Ais are playing a huge role in making recipes, designing of clothes etc and thus, it is being even more complicated and difficult to acquire rights to protect such works which are being invented by the Ais on their won and such works are even considered of the best quality than if being prepared by huma beings.  For instance- “In a related trend, an AI conceived and executed a masterpiece known as ‘The Next Rembrandt’ using huge set of raw data and deep-learning algorithms in 2017.”[10]

The human being usually puts his labour and skill and uses the abilities of AI in order to make certain data which are then put into the AI in order to invent on the basis of such data. Thus, it wouldn’t be justifiable if such human being is not being permitted to acquire rights under Intellectual Property Law in order to protect such inventions. Therefore, it wouldn’t act as an incentive in order to motivate such human being who created such inventions through the help of his own skill and AI’s learning abilities.

Thus, it can be concluded by saying that there are numerous questions which need to be answered after years regarding the actual meaning of “Author”, what comes under the purview of “Patentable”, who is an “Inventor”, liability in case of AIs hampering the IP rights of the human beings, status of ownership and whether AIs can be granted rights under the Patent Law when they become independent enough to invent things on their own without the help or efforts of human beings.

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[1] Meaning of Artificial Intelligence,

[2] Bayer Corporation v. Union of India and Others, 2014(5) ABR 242: MIPR 2014 (3) 53: 2014 (60) PTC 277


[3] “Intellectual, industrial and commercial property | Fact Sheets on the European Union | European Parliament” (September 17, 2019; 20:00 pm)

[4] “WIPO — A Brief History”. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

[5] Summaries of Conventions, Treaties and Agreements Administered by WIPO

[6] Supra 6

[7] Kathleen Walch, ‘Artificial Intelligence Is Not A Technology’, (2018) Available from:, Accessed on 11th November, 2020 at 6:00 pm.

[8] Ibid, Pg. 58

[9] Ibid

[10] Kavita Iyer, ‘Google’s AI Creates Its Own AI That Is Superior Than The Ones Made By Humans’, (2017) Available from:, Accessed on 12th November, 2020 at 8:00 am


Duties of Flag States: An Overview

By:Amogh Dabholkar

To elaborate upon the development of the “flag state” — a term made up of two words of rich and deep heritage and history, it was first used in 1000 B.C. by the Egyptians for the purpose of identity. The flag, ultimately gained recognition as the legal regime of a ship. It was used as a tool of understanding where and how a right relating to a ship can be enforced and who, precisely, would be accountable for actions arising therefrom. It also found formal codification in the High Seas Convention (‘HSC’) in 1958 and ultimately UNCLOS in 1982. The concept of Statehood also, arguably created by Vitoria in De Indis de Iure Belli Relectiones found place in the Treaty of Westphalia (1958) which ended the Thirty Years’ War.[1] The Portugese, in the mid-twentieth century had a monopoly over the Indian Ocean which was attempted to be broken by the Dutch by professing the theory of independent, sovereign states having undisputed, sovereign power and control. The doctrine of Mare Liberum also was seen as a milestone in the progress of freedom of global trade and navigation.[2] Gradually, these concepts came to be recognized as principles of customary international law and like developments led to the foundation of the International Law Commission (ILC). The First Conference of the United Nations on Law of the Sea in 1958 led to the drafting of the High Seas Convention in 1958, the precursor to UNCLOS (1982).

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Flag State, fundamentally, is the state/nation in which the ship is registered, that state exercising jurisdiction over ships. In other words, the domestic laws of the flag state will apply to the vessel carrying its flag in high seas and in other areas covered exceptionally in international treaties.

The flag state obligations are mentioned under Article 94 of UNCLOS. Article 94(1) extends the duty of flag states to “administrative, technical and social matters”. It also has to maintain a register containing the names and particulars of all ships and ship owners which, consequently, strengthens the genuine link between States and their flags, a concept that I will explain ahead. Article 94(3) says that every ship must maintain and carry out certain measures to ensure safety of life at sea. What these measures precisely are is enumerated under Article 94(4).

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Moving from flag state obligations to marine pollution, the already-increased concerns over pollution at sea shot up drastically after 1960 owing to 3 incidents — Torrey Canyon in 1967, Amoco Cadiz in 1978 and Exxon Valdez in 1989. Safety of life and the marine environment as a whole came under the radar and the need to protect the marine environment under Article 217 of UNCLOS is a sufficient measure to protect and safeguard the marine environment from pollution caused by vessels. These incidents and the dire need to have a separate law for protecting the oceans and developments in the field of international law led to the creation of the International Convention for Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships, 1973 which later came to be modified by the Protocol of 1978. (These enactments have been mentioned by the author as they form a jurisdictional and regulatory mechanism extending to all ocean-going vessels and their activities.)

Some of the more relevant and prevailing issues — absence of recognition of fishing operations and fishing vessels under Article 94 or any other provision in the UNCLOS, lack of ownership identification in ship registration, lack of ownership identification and a mere name-sake encapsulation of the genuine link concept under Article 91 — make it even more difficult to come up with a concrete mechanism of ensuring and enforcing genuine links, which is the dire need in the maritime world today.

It has been observed that certain member states, being reluctant to the idea of defining concretely the criteria for establishing a ‘genuine link’ between the ship and its flag, (as it would obliterate the open registries of that nation thereby precluding foreign influx of finances and lead to lesser and lesser registrations) prefer to keep the issue of ship registration ambiguous and at the discretion of member states (which is why these states are known as ‘flags of convenience’). However, the International Tribunal of Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in 1999 in M/V Saiga No. 2 Case (St Vincent and the Grenadines v Guinea)[3] reiterated this view that the ‘genuine link’ concept is to be viewed in the context of effective implementation of the flag State obligations and not for determining the criteria of when it would be apt for States to allow ships to fly its flag. After considering Article 5 of the 1958 HSC, the deliberations of the ILC and UNCLOS I on the subject, and Article 94 of UNCLOS 1982, ITLOS stated:

“The purpose of the provisions of the Convention on the need for a genuine link between a ship and its flag State is to secure more effective implementation of the duties of the flag State, and not to establish criteria by reference to which the validity of the registration of ships in a flag State may be challenged by other States.”[4]


Dr Kate Lewins, a specialist in international maritime law at Murdoch University, submitted:

“The result, more often than not, is that there might be multiple [countries] entitled to claim jurisdiction over a particular criminal act, based on the flag and location of the ship and the nationalities of the people involved. [Which country will take the lead] may well end up being one negotiated through diplomatic channels, largely based on pragmatism.”[5]

Eight years after two Italian marines shot down two innocent fishermen on their fishing vessel ‘St. Antony’, several enquiries arose. One of the prominent issues that came up was the one with respect to jurisdiction. Who would have the rightful jurisdiction to try the two Italian marines who, guising the two fishermen as pirates, had killed them? After a flood of newspaper articles and other media reports, a few side issues that were up for consideration were — where did the incident take place? Was it the high seas as claimed by Italy or was it the exclusive economic zone of India as contended by India? Did the International Tribunal of Law of the Sea have jurisdiction to entertain the dispute between the two countries? Did Italy breach India’s rights and particularly, its right to navigate on its own EEZ? All these questions have been put to rest by the Award passed by the five-member tribunal referred to by ITLOS. In this sub-space, we shall have a look at the contentions put forth by both the countries at loggerheads before the arbitral tribunal and the decision of the esteemed tribunal.

After the dispute was referred to by the esteemed five-member tribunal referred to by ITLOS, it decided the matter with all competence and justness. Before the tribunal some of the key contentions of Italy were as follows:

  • By acting in consonance with certain provisions of the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and other Maritime Zones Act, 1976 and with the Ministry of Home Affairs Notification No. S.O. 671(E) dated 27 August 1981, India had acted in breach of Articles 33(1), 56(1), 56(2), 58(2), 87(1)(a) and 89 of UNCLOS;
  • By forcefully directing Enrica Lexia to Kerela coast, it had acted in violation of Italy’s freedom of navigation viz. Article 87(1)(a) and Italy’s exclusive jurisdiction over the commercial vessel in breach of Article 92 of UNCLOS and Article 300 read with Article 100 of UNCLOS as it had abused its right to seek Italy’s cooperation in the repression of piracy;
  • By instituting penal proceedings against the marines of Italian nationality, India was in breach of Article 97(1) of UNCLOS;
  • By ordering arrest and detention of Enrica Lexie, India was in breach of Article 97(3) of UNCLOS.

India, on the other hand contested all these submissions and said that by throwing open fire at its non-commercial vessel ‘St. Antony’ and killing two Indian fishermen on board, Italy violated:

  • India’s sovereign rights under Article 56 of UNCLOS;
  • India’s rights to explore and navigate in its EEZ under Article 58(3);
  • India’s right and freedom of navigation under Articles 87 and 90;
  • India’s right to have its EEZ maintained for peaceful reasons and conditions under Article 88 of UNCLOS.

After considering the submissions of both the countries, the arbitral tribunal passed its award. The award, primarily, by a 4:1 vote ratio, said that it has the appropriate jurisdiction to entertain the dispute and that it found India’s counter-claims admissible, that India has not violated Articles 87(1)(a) and 92 para 1, 97 paras 1 & 3, 100 and consequently 300. It, in a somewhat blow to India’s teeth, held that the Italian marines were entitled to immunity. But this was the only point against India’s interests as it went further on to hold that Italy, having committed to initiate criminal proceedings against the marines, India should cease all criminal proceedings initiated against them, that Italy, by breaching Articles 87 and 90, has wrongfully interfered with the navigation of ‘St. Antony’ and finally, that India is entitled to payment of compensation for loss of life, physical harm, material damage to property and moral harm suffered by captain and other crew members of ‘St. Antony’ which, by the nature of the offence, cannot be repaired through compensation.[6]

If not anything, the compensation awarded to the families may counter the grief they have borne by the sudden and sad demise of our two countrymen.


Coming to the more recent issues and their solutions, while a lot can be done to curb marine pollution, polar issues and piracy a lot is being done for its eradication and prevention which deserves attention and elaboration. Talking about marine pollution, the jurisdictional authority with regards to marine environmental pollution is the International Maritime Organization (IMO) — a UN specialized body/agency. Some of the programmes initiated by the United Nations are: Regional Seas Programme, Global Programme of Action for Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities. The United Nations Economic, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) through Intergovernance Oceonographic Commission co-ordinates programmes on marine research, observation systems, hazard mitigation and better managing ocean and coastal states. MARPOL, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 and 1954 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil. For the purpose of ensuring safety and regulation of travel and governance between the two poles, the UN has entered The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters (Polar Code).[7]

While environmental pollution and polar-centric regulatory activities are significantly relevant in the list of UN activities, Piracy takes the cake. In recent years, there has been a surge in piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Guinea. The consequences of piracy are: loss of life, physical harm or hostage-taking of seafarers, significant disruptions to commerce and navigation, financial losses to shipowners, increased insurance premiums and security costs, increased costs to consumers and producers, and damage to the marine environment.

To curb and prevent piracy, the IMO and UN have adopted additional resolutions to complement rules in UNCLOS, the UNODC through its Global Maritime Crime Programme combats transnational organized crime of the coast of Horn of Africa and Gulf of Guinea. Some of the suggestions the author would like to add to the credible and laudable activities of the UN are: to formulate a special mechanism to carry out result-oriented, speedy and efficacious trials, imprisonment of piracy suspects as well as developing maritime enforcement capabilities through facilitation of training programmes. A range of activities can be undertaken by the State authorities — from piracy prosecution models, prisoner transfers and training of members in the judicial system of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean to full time mentoring to coast guards and police units in Somalia, Kenya and Ghana.[8]


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[1] Publ. 1696, ed. Simon ,James Crawford, “The Creation of States in International Law”, 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford p.9.

[2] Law of the Sea, Oceanic Resources, Jones p.9.


[3] Nivedita M. Hosanee, Defining the genuine link, THE RIGHT OF THE FLAG STATE TO SAIL SHIPS AND THE GENUINE LINK CONCEPT, (23rd September, 2020, 8:20 PM),

[4] Ibid.

[5] Dr Kate Lewins, Submission 1, p. 2 (26th September, 8:07 PM).


[6] Source: Award between India and Italy: (25th September, 8:30 PM)

[7] United Nations, Protection of marine environment and biodiversity, Oceans and the Law of the Sea (26th September, 9:37 PM)


[8] Ibid.


Comparative Study Of Drone Laws/Regulations In USA, UAE and Germany

By: Siddhant Tiwari


Mankind has yearned to take to the skies since centuries[1], and this interest is visible in the fact that aviation is one of the fastest progressing field in the world, growing by leaps and bounds since the Wright Brothers first took to air. Today, as we stand at the cusp of yet another milestone, that is the onset of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones as they are more popularly referred to, it is quite clear to ascertain where the future of aviation is headed. Drones are not just a flash in the pan, rather they are the ‘new normal’. Drones are everywhere- be it delivering parcels, launching an attack on the adversary, or even spraying fertilizers on large swathes of land[2]. This article compares the various regulations centered around safe and controlled operation of drones in the USA, UAE, and Germany, and strives to understand where the difference in core values of the respective countries lies. Three parameters shall be used here for comparison, namely requirements for registration of user and drone, general rules for hobby/recreational flying, and rules in force for commercial UAV flying.

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Unlike general aviation technology (both civil and military), which evolved over almost a century post the Wright Brother’s first flight, UAV technology has been around for far less time in comparison[3]. Lawmakers and experts have found it hard to keep up with the blinding advances in this field, often lagging behind and catching up later on. With that context in mind, it would be unfair to say that drone laws are insufficient or incapable of encompassing all the facets of usage of drones. It is one of the fields where ‘trial and error’ method has proved to be more accurate than any other method, especially because no one could have foreseen that UAVs would become such an integral part of our lives in such a short span of time.

This has been enabled by developments in allied fields such as AI, improved computing, lighter and stronger materials for aviation purposes and last but not the least, a change in consumer mindset. Most of the developed nations have come out with their own set of drone laws after much deliberation and learning from experiences. Some of them are discussed in detail below.



The US Federal Aviation Authority (FAA)[4] is the overseeing body when it comes to drafting of rules and regulations related to aviation in US, including drone laws. Rules may differ slightly from state to state across mainland America[5] however their essence remains essentially the same. As far as requirements for obtaining a commercial drone pilot license are concerned, an aspiring user must be able to read, write and speak English (exception may be made for persons with speech/hearing disabilities) and must generally be in a sound mental and physical state to operate the UAV. The minimum age requirement for the applicant is sixteen besides which two tests/screenings need to be cleared. The first one is Aeronautical Knowledge Test (also known as Part 107 Test)[6]. A safety screening conducted by TSA (Transport Safety Administration) also needs to be cleared to obtain the license.


For hobby flying, no license is required, and the rules as mandated by FAA explicitly bar a hobby flyer from undertaking any kind of commercial flying. The UAV needs to be registered on the FAA portal built for this purpose. All flying is to be conducted in visual LoS (Line of Sight) and away from other air-traffic as well as scenes of emergency. Most importantly, the drone must weigh below 55 Lbs. and it can only be flown in Class G airspace. For operation in higher classes of airspace, airspace authorization must be sought from the concerned department[7].


Commercial drone flying can be taken only after a Remote Pilot Certificate is obtained from FAA and just like in the case of hobby flying the drone has to be registered with FAA. The weight of drone including payload can not exceed 55 Lbs and it can not be flown above 400 ft or faster than 100 Mph. All commercial flying is to be undertaken during daytime while avoiding populated areas and directly flying over people. A manned aircraft has the right of way in all cases. Class G airspace condition can be waived off upon receiving FAA Part 107 waiver. USA has been at the forefront of commercial drone development as well as for military purpose. It goes without saying that the rules will continue to get amended with newer technologies as well as changing requirements.[8]


The UAE General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA) is the apex body overseeing drone rule creation and enactment in the emirate. Just like in the US, a drone pilot has to first and foremost obtain a flying license, called Operator Training Certificate from any of the approved academies and get his/her drone registered with the GCAA[9]. Post obtaining the NOC, the rules are quite simple and straightforward. There are two important rules in this regard. The first one clarifies that flying near airports is strictly prohibited in order to avoid near miss situations with civil aircrafts, as has happened in the future. The second rule is about abstaining from flying in the ‘No-Fly Zones’, which are clearly demarcated and can be seen using the UAE Drone Fly Zone Map application[10]. In short, the country has managed to simplify the registration and air space management aspect quite effectively.

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After obtaining requisite NOC using the process mentioned above, a recreational flyer may operate their drone within the ambit of certain rules. The drone must weigh 5 Kg or less and must remain in LOS and not fly beyond 400 ft. Image/video capturing is disallowed unless the operator has a valid Emirate ID registered with the GCAA. A minimum distance of 5 km has to be maintained from the outer fence of all aerodromes/heliports/locations from where any aviation activity is being undertaken. Certain rules are common between hobby and commercial flying namely avoiding creating nuisance to the common public or endangering any personal/public property. In case of re-selling of drone, owner is responsible for informing GCAA through the proper channel. Minimum age of 21 years is necessary to fly drones weighing more than 25 Kg.


In the case of commercial drone operations in UAE, the operator must mandatorily pass the UAS GCAA exam on top of holding the standard operators’ certificate. Most importantly, the operating individual/company has to take requisite approval for every single flight operated towards commercial purposes. The permission ceases to be valid after completion of the sortie for which it was obtained. Additionally, it is important to know that anyone desirous of operating a drone in Dubai specifically, must also follow the rules for remotely piloted aircrafts established by the Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCAA)[11] on top of rules prescribed by GCAA. In case of loss or accident of a drone, the operator is solely responsible to inform about the same to GCAA as early as possible.



The apex authority on all matters pertaining to aviation in Germany is the Federal Aviation Office (FAO). In 2017, a new Drone Regulation came into force[12] in the country which clearly outlined the rules and requirements for any individual/company seeking to undertake drone operations. Interestingly, Germany has clubbed some drone rules for applicability on RC model aircraft[13] which have been in vogue since many decades and are not necessarily seen in the same light as drones. Notwithstanding, a ‘Certificate of Knowledge’ is required for operating all UAVs weighing above 2 Kg. These certificates are valid for 5 years and minimum age to apply is 14 years. No flying permit is required for drones weighing upto 5 Kg. However, for all drones above 5 kg and for all night flying operations, a flying permit is mandatory.


The Federal Ministry of Transport & Digital Infrastructure does not explicitly differentiate between hobby and commercial drone flying, and this is where it is most different from its sister bodies in USA and UAE[14]. The focus is more towards aerospace hygiene and safety of men and material. Some might argue that such a generalized approach in formulation of rules creates a lacuna in law enforcement while other proponents of the theory are all for its simplicity and transparency.  With the above fact in mind, the country mandates that all drones regardless of their weight and usage must be insured and all drones above 250 gm must carry a fireproof sticker for easy identification of drone in case of loss/accident. The sticker should carry the basic details of user like name, address, and contact details.


Additionally, all UAVs have to maintain a minimum distance 1.5 Km from an airfield/helipad. A permit is required to fly above 100 meters (50 meters in case of controlled airspace). Direct visual contact is mandatory as far as practicable. Basic courtesies like not causing disturbance to fellow citizens, avoiding damage to property and maintaining minimum distance of 100 m from large gatherings are to be followed[15]. It can be said that this is a more humane approach towards formulation of guidelines, albeit at the cost of certain ambiguity and scope of inadvertent law infringement.



On a case to case basis, the rules and regulations around the safe and productive use of UAVs in USA, UAE and Germany have each got their merits and de-merits. The positive thing to note here is that these nations have attempted to keep the process as simple to understand as possible. Many a times, several noble initiatives and technologies are nipped at the bud for the lack of supporting legal framework, or simply because the government demonize them before fully understanding them. It is heartening to note that these three nations have gone all out to support this upcoming technology and are continuously working to further streamline the regulations and processes.


Drone laws have evolved massively from their initial days. It has certainly taken a lot more time and debate to create and implement them than should have normally taken, and this delay can easily be attributed to an array of ethical and security issues that stem from drone operations. Despite all these rules, it is comparatively easier for negative elements in the society to misuse UAVs for all sorts of nefarious purposes[16]. As drones become progressively better with each passing day, it remains to be seen if rules and regulations can keep up with the pace of technical development, what with concepts like AI and IOT not coming into the fray and making the process of law formulation for drone operations even more complicated[17]. As in the case of above three states, each has something unique to offer. While USA focuses on specifying each technical aspect to the dot, UAE has made it easier for users to access the information thereby ensuring higher abidance. Germany, on the other hand, has kept the rules simple and inclusive in hope of ensuring easier adaptability to the rules.

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[1] Tim Sharp, “The First Hot-Air Balloon Flight”, Apr 09, 2019 (

[2] CB Insights, ’38 Ways Drones Will Impact Society: From Fighting War to Forecasting Weather, UAVs Change Everything’,  Jan 9, 2020 (

[3] Meenal Dhande, ‘The Current Scenario of Global Drone Regulations & Laws’, Geospatial World, 19 Nov 2016, (

[4] Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), ‘Unmanned Aircraft Systems’,, (

[5] National Congress of State Legislatures, ‘Current Unmanned Aircraft State Law Landscape’,, (

[6] Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), ‘Become A Drone Pilot’,, (

[7] Grupo One Air ‘US Drone Laws: New FAA Regulations for UAVs’ (

[8] IV Kovalev, AA Voroshilova, MV Karaeva, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ‘Analysis of the Current Situation & Development Trend of the International Cargo UAVs Market’, (

[9] UAE General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA), ‘Application for Unmanned Aircraft Registeration’,   (

[10] UAE General Civil Aviation Authority (GCAA), ‘UAE Fly Zone for Unmanned Aircraft/Drone’,  (

[11] Dubai Civil Aviation Authority (DCAA), ‘Application for Issuing a Permit to conduct any Aviation Related Activity’,, (

[12] European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), ‘European Plan for Aviation Safety’, (

[13] Drone Rules, ‘Drone Regulations: Germany’, (

[14] BMVI,, ‘Clear Rules for the Operation of Drones’, (

[15] UAV Coach, ‘Drone Laws in Germany’, (,328%20feet)%20without%20a%20permit.&text=Drones%20weighing%20up%20to%205,all%20drone%20operations%20in%20Germany)

[16] PK Jaiswar, ‘Misuse of Drones has Punjab Security Agencies on Toes’, The Tribune, Jan 20, 2020 (

[17] Marcus Roth, ‘AI in Military Drones & UAVs’,, Nov 22, 2019 (


Role of Directors In Companies In India, USA and UAE

By: Shubham Mathur


For the smooth running of the company, the role and duty of a director is essentially significant. Stipulating and clarifying the roles and obligations of the company’s directors helps to enhance corporate governance and stability, contributing to increased development and prosperity in the corporate sector.


In the Companies Act, 2013, the position of director was properly laid down. In this aspect, the former company law of India, i.e. the Companies Act, 1956, was deficient. A groundbreaking piece of legislation in this regard is considered to be the new Companies Act, 2014. The roles and obligations of the directors comprising the independent directors are properly and clearly specified and explained. This guarantees greater and flawless corporate governance and governance. It helps and empowers beneficiaries, regulators and courts to judge and control more critically and efficiently the directors’ activities and obligations.

With updated corporate governance principles, i.e. the Updated and New Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement of the Securities and Exchange Board of India[1], the new Companies Act, 2013 must be read. This will bring the corporate governance requirements of SEBI into near alignment and compliance with the provisions of the Companies Act in relation to the companies listed. The updated provisions of the Act relating to the duties of directors were made effective as of April 1, 2014, but the updated corporate governance principles of the SEBI were made effective as of October 1, 2014.

Directors are considered to be key managers in a business that is of particular interest to the companies mentioned. They may hold several senior and responsible roles in companies, such as Managing Director, Manager, Whole Time Director, or Independent Director.[2] Thus, the effective, flawless, and very progressive management of an organisation, and the desired growth and profitability of its companies, are certainly largely dependent on the competence and trustworthiness of its directors. A director means a director appointed to the board of directors of a corporation, which is the collective body of its directors.


The roles and duties of directors set out in the Indian Companies Act of 2013 can be broadly divided into the following two categories:

  1. The functions and obligations that promote and encourage the sincere investment of managers’ best efforts in effective and prudent corporate management, the elegant and rapid resolution of various business-related concerns, including those raised by red flags, and the complete sophistication and wisdom of decisions to avoid unnecessary organisational risks.
  2. Trust duties that ensure and ensure that company directors always maintain, over and above their own personal interests, the interests of the company and its stakeholders.

The following duties and obligations have been levied on the directors of companies under Section 166 of the Indian Companies Act of 2013-[3]

  • In accordance with its Articles of Association (AOA), a director of the organisation has to act.
  • A director must always behave in good faith to support the company’s objects, which will support the company’s objects. This will support the business as a whole and protect the best interests of the company’s stakeholders.
  • With proper and fair consideration, ability and diligence, a director must exercise his duties and exercise independent judgement.
  • A director of a corporation shall not be involved in a situation in which he may have a direct or indirect interest that contradicts the interests of the company or may conflict with them.
  • A company director shall not receive or attempt to obtain any undue benefit or profit either for himself or his family, partners or associates and shall be responsible for paying the company an amount equal to that benefit if such director is found guilty of making any undue gain.A business director shall not allocate his office and any appointment so rendered shall be invalid.
  • If the company director violates the provisions of this section, a fine of not less than one Lakh Rupee may be levied on the company director, which may be extended to five Lac Rupees.

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The CA-2013 liability regime not only imposes on the directors of Indian companies the above-mentioned duties and responsibilities, but also encourages the independence and equity of a company’s board of directors. Therefore, the new Indian Companies Act of 2013 also lays down the roles, duties and responsibilities of independent directors. An Independent Director is a member of the board of directors of a company that does not have a financial agreement (with the exception of sitting fees) with the company or is entitled to own shares in the company. In the earlier Indian Companies Act of 1956, there were no clear provisions for independent directors and only the old clause 49 of the SEBI listing agreement contained requirements for the induction of independent directors to the listed companies.

The new Indian Companies Act of 2013 specifies that, as independent directors, all listed companies must constitute at least one third of the total size of their directors, and also empowers the Government of India to include other categories of companies within the scope of that provision or requirement (Section 149 of the CA-2013).[4] To strictly comply with this mandatory provision, public limited companies composed in compliance with the former CA-1956 shall be granted a grace period of one year. Again, for more than two consecutive terms, independent directors are not eligible to hold office for a period of five years.

Under the current structure, the roles and duties of independent directors have been significantly expanded, and several new areas have been addressed prudently. Broadly, the highly responsible role of arbitrators within the business among various constituencies is intelligently assigned to them. Therefore, the latest rules for independent directors of limited companies are certainly very positive for transparent and sound corporate governance and are highly favourable for the company and all its shareholders. Some of the most relevant functions, duties and liabilities of independent directors are the following (as per Schedule IV of the CA-2013)-

  • An independent director must assist in providing the board with equitable and independent judgement.
  • An independent director needs to protect the interests of all stakeholders and support them. In that direction, all his / her acts should be.
  • An independent director needs to conciliate and reconcile the shareholders’ competing interests.
  • An independent director must attend and participate regularly in the meetings of the committee board.
  • In an objective and unbiased manner, an independent director must report. He should be ethical and not break the code of ethics in the business or commit any fraud.


Directors’ duties and responsibilities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) come from various legislative sources and there is no consolidated legislative structure addressing the duties and responsibilities of directors under the law of the UAE. The terms’ manager ‘and’ director ‘are used interchangeably in UAE law. The rules and regulations affecting directors are taken from different sources in the UAE, including-

  • UAE Federal Law No. 2 of 2015 concerning Commercial Companies (“Company Law“).
  • Federal Law No. 5 of 1985 on Civil Transactions (“Civil Code“).
  • Federal Law No. 3 of 1987 Promulgating the Penal Code (“Penal Code“).
  • UAE Federal Law No. 18 of 1993 on Commercial Transactions (“Commercial Transactions Law“).


In the performance of a prudent person in the performance of his duties, a director must always act. The acts performed by a director must always be in order to promote the mission and powers of the company given to him by the shareholders. There are situations where the director is expected to behave in compliance with the internal regulations and supervision of the company, including the application of particular authorities provided in the sense of the company’s memorandum of association or by internal resolution or by the power of attorney. Accordingly, it is important for the director to understand and operate only within the jurisdiction of the powers bestowed by the organisation.[5] It is important, in view of the above, that managers ensure that the necessary internal approvals have been obtained before any contractual arrangement is reached for the company.

In addition, the Companies Law provides that any scheme seeking to relieve the director of personal responsibility resulting from the mismanagement or unauthorised use by the company of the powers vested on the director by the company shall be void.[6] When read together, the above clauses may be interpreted as meaning that the director will not be relieved of personal liability on the part of the director as a result of any misuse of the powers conferred by the company or of actions performed by the director in violation of the law in force.[7] There is no restriction against a company receiving directors’ liability insurance for a director or compensating a director for actions validly taken by a director in the normal course.

Other duties of the directors’ are-

  • The Director is responsible for the planning and authenticity of the Annual Reports.
  • Conflict of Interest-Unless accepted by the shareholders of the company, a director has to fulfil his duties with the business line of the company.
  • Confidentiality- A director should not disclose the secret of the company or damage the business of the company.
  • Resignation Timing- A director may only resign at a time that does not cause harm to the company, according to the Civil Code.
  • Liability to others- If the director is found to have committed fraudulent actions, a liability claims against him or her can be brought by the corporation and/or the shareholders; the director is therefore liable to third parties.

In the Commercial Transactions Law and Penal Code, there are several provisions as to how courts should treat insolvent companies and their directors. In this regard, Article 882 of the Commercial Transactions Law, which states that directors may be liable to a custodial sentence in the event that they are imprisoned, is of particular importance.

  • They also failed to provide adequate details in the financial books and records of the company to reflect the true financial condition of the company.
  • They do not have information requested by the court or trustee in bankruptcy or whether they are providing false information knowingly.
  • Where the assets of the company have been sold at less than their value in an effort to prolong the suspension of payment of debts or the company’s declaration of bankruptcy, or where any illegal action has been taken by the directors to acquire credit or funds in order to achieve the above.
  • If, at a time when the company is no longer in a position to cover its debts, the director’s bargain with all of the assets of the company in order to retain those assets outside the creditors’ control.

The roles and duties of a director in the UAE were these. The study of the company’s risks requires due consideration.

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In essence, US public corporations have a unitary board structure, which implies a framework of one tier. This is governed by Section 141 of the DGCL.[8] Section 141(b) of the DGCL specifies that there be one or more members on the board. The number of directors is determined by the certificate of incorporation of the company or by other bylaws. The optimal size of a board is between 9 and 12 directors, and a corporation must have no less than 6 and no more than 15 directors.


Directors owe the company and its shareholders a fiduciary duty of care and allegiance.

  • Duty of care-The duty of care requires directors to act in a similar role with the degree of care that an ordinarily conscientious person would use in similar circumstances. The duty of care allows directors to act on an informed basis, after fair inquiry and deliberation. Directors are expected to rely on management and experts, where it is reasonable to do so.
  • The duty to act in good faith is a secondary function of the duty of allegiance. Generally speaking, the obligation requires administrators to act fairly and truthfully, in the best interests of the organisation, and in a way that is not knowingly unethical or contrary to public policy. The following are the liabilities of the directors under the US Law-
  • Directors are subject to liability for their acts and inactions, but stringent provisions of liability generally apply. In general, the rule of business judgement may be enforced by the courts, which demands that directors and officers act informedly, in good faith and in the best interest of the corporation. The court would not discuss the merits of the judgement of the underlying board if the presumption is not settled by the complainant.[9]
  • In certain situations (such as the sale of a company), a different standard of judicial review can apply. Document provisions governing protection from liability, compensation and creation of expenses, as well as insurance for directors and officers, are usually covered by directors.


Taking into account the people and the world in which they reside, the laws of the three listed countries are created. There are some loopholes in the legislation which can be amended. Given the Indian angle, it is very clear that CA-2013 genuinely seeks to make corporate management and governance in India very successful, fully accountable, transparent and maximally beneficial to all stakeholders and related professionals through this intelligent legislation on the duties and responsibilities of managers in Indian companies.

[1] Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement of the Securities and Exchange Board of India

[2]Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Management And Board Governance

[3] Section 166 of Companies Act, 2013

[4] Section 149 of Companies Act, 2013

[5] Douglas G. Smith, Mark Gilligan,Duties and Liabilities of Directors in the United Arab Emirate, Squire Patton,

[6] Ibid

[7] Mojaged Al Sebae, Nadim Al Jisr, Managers’ and directors’ duties and liabilities under the UAE law,

[8] Section 141 of Delaware General Corporation Law

[9]  Robert Treuhold, Corporate governance and directors’ duties in the United States: overview Stephen Giove,

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Role of Mediation In Resolving International Disputes.

By: Yadav Rohit

MEDIATION can be defined as one of the alternatives for the Dispute Resolution process, which consist of a precise set of procedures. Where a Neutral Third acts as Mediator and assists the parties to discuss the dispute in much appropriate manner in order to reach a satisfactory conclusion and acceptable by both parties. The whole meeting is held in much confidential manners and also provides the opportunity two both parties to put forth their version of disputes and demands in order to resolve their disputes.

Mediation is also known as extended hand of the law because this process provides various ways in order to reach the solution without being constrained by laws and its long procedures. This process is much more effective if this has been chosen by the both parties to resolve their disputes. Mediation, particularly are not that much into trend throughout the globe not because of being ineffective but due to lack of awareness in the masses and they rely more on the lengthy and expensive court proceedings as the only reliable source for justice.

This process is much into consideration in the modern world and throughout the globe in order to resolve the dispute in various different parameters unless its in public interest. Apart from this effective alternative, there are various significant aspects of this process in order to deal with the number of disputes and the following are:

  1. Number of parties can engage over one issue or more.
  2. This can be totally by parties or the courts order.
  3. Unbiased third parties do assist the parties in disputes.
  4. Mediators’ suggestions are not mandatory to bind by the parties in dispute.
  5. Meeting in the process is totally confidential in nature.
  6. Mediation cannot be accessed in case of Penal and other heinous crimes.

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GLOBAL OUTLOOK OF MEDIATION: Mediation is still not the first priority of the people or country in order to resolve their dispute, and International scenario Mediation faces many problems regarding the jurisdiction of Legislation and statutory provisions and rules pertaining to mediation is much constraint due to the bound law of different countries. In order to overcome this obstacle various International Firms took the initiative to collab with various other International forums and make bridge to provide legal assistance to the international clients according to there norms and condition and laws abiding in the respective country. This gave the great break through to the International Trade mediation and authorised forums used to appoint various mediator lushed with skills in order to assist there disputes and provide vital solution to the parties and charge there fees by the parties in disputes to the firms. In order to make mediation as power full alternative in order to resolve various disputes among the parties are achieved by various International Firms are as follows:

  • The International Chamber of Commerce.
  • The Singapore International Arbitration Centre.
  • International Mediation Institute.
  • Indian Institute of Arbitration and Mediation.

It have been noticed that there is tremendous growth of  Mediation  as alternative dispute resolution  in the WIPO (WORLD INTELLACTUAL PROPERTY) according to the recent survey by the authority.


There are various strategies used by the mediator in order to provide much efficient advices and suggestions to the Parties in dispute to reach their specific solutions of their issues and the following are some Strategies:

  • Procedural Strategies – The mediator controls the agenda, timings, release of press and other essential arrangements and also control the formality and flexibility of the meet ups and this strategy helps to reduce the stress and anxiety of the parties in dispute and provide better space to resolve the conflicts.

In year 2002 till 2004, the Organization of America States, the United Nations Development program and Jimmy Carter opened a Dialogue between Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez Fraiz, the Government and the opposition and the mediation was conducted in order to reconcile the divided society and preserve the democracy while preventing aggressive conflict.

  • Communication – Facilitation Strategy helps the mediator to work passively and focusing on facilitating and communication between parties.
  • Directive Strategies – In this form of strategies mediator act bit harsh to the parties in order to accept the discussion or the conclusion either by threatening parties with diplomatic sanctions or incentives while being in humanitarian aid.

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Mediation has played major role in various International conflicts throughout the globe and have rich history in order to resolve the Disputes of various countries like Britain, Nigeria and Peru each nation took benefits of Mediation. The Acta De Brasailia was signed in year 1998 to resolve the dispute between Ecuador and Peru. In which Brazil, Chile, Argentina and the United States played a third part role in order to assist both the parties in disputes. The main purpose of the said agreement was to create peace perks or adjacent zones of ecological protection, on both sides of the border in the said region of Cordillera del Condor. In last 10 years, very great example of the mediation with good faith in order maintain the future consequences of the countries lying in historically politically tense Levant region (Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Palestine) have been observed by The International Institute for Sustainable Development {IISD} that there can be future security threat of climate change. This research was conducted by the neutral third party in order to conclude and help the avert and dispute may arise from climate change for example of scarcity of water in this region. The researcher analysis the future dispute and try to avail various suggestion and strategies in order to dodge the potential dispute that might arise in historically volatile region. The third party came with following findings and suggestions in order to provide the proper appropriate advices that can be used and avoid the future threat in much efficient mannered and whole process of the research was conducted in much unbiased and informative manner. Sometimes mediators also plays role in order to reduce the tension among the parties in dispute and try to maintain the situation by providing the correct information to both parties by acting as messenger, that helps the parties in dispute to take sensible steps against each other and try to resolve the said issues without taking any adverse steps that can harm to both parties. The example of Nigerian Civil War that took place in Year 1967-1970. In which various great leaders like Quakers Adam Curle, John Volkmar and Walter Martin acted as Mediators and help to maintain the situation and lower down the tension among the parties in dispute, that worked in much effective manner in order to reach down to effective solution that helped to end the war.


  IN last year, 46 Nations have signed the International Treaty on MEDAITION in which two great power of economies also participated like CHINA and UNITED STATES, alonf with three and four largest economies in  Asia where  China, India and south Korea held there meeting in Singapore and led down the foundation of the International Treaty on Mediation. This treaty will provide overall settlement of the disputes among the signatory countries of the Mediation treaty will resolve there dispute through Mediation process in order to maintain the International relation and keep harmony in the International space and this treaty is also known as SINGAPORE CONVENTION on International Settlement Agreement and has been attended by 70 countries Senior officials in order to show the trust and respect towards each other. Still it remains in doubt weather that Singapore convention will get success or not but the actual essence of the agreement will rely mostly on the enforcement of settlement agreements International framework to make mediation more power full aspect and choice in order resolve the dispute by the parties having issues.

UNCITRAL MODEL LAW ON International commercial mediation and INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENT Agreement resulting from Mediation:

The main purpose of the this designed is to uplift the states and provide them reforming and updated laws in order to make procedure more effective in Mediation and also make provision to standardize the rules and process for reducing the area of doubt during the Mediation. This form will encourage this states in order to take part in this process and ensure to get fair and acceptable solution for the parties in dispute. This model was adopted in year 2002 and was knowing “Model Law on International Commercial Concillation”  and was further it have been interpretated that mediation and conciliation can be used interchangeable and further have been noted that the change in terminology haven’t created any and implication on the conceptions of the model. In order to be aware of the uncertainty in absence of the statutory provision, model provide proper guidelines to the mediator in order to follow the sets of rules which will maintain the process standard and relevant.


India have shown positive perspective towards the State to state mediation in order to resolve International dispute more effectively other then the rule and laws laid down by the International dispute resolution. They have adversarial system in order to resolve the system. India have shown always positive aspects in order to uses softer technique in order to solve the International dispute rather then using harsh litigation in which there will be more probability of relation get strained between the parties dispute. While being the original member of the UNITED NATION CHARTER, India have all supported and shown policies of pacific settlement of disputes. This policies are mentioned in the constitution of India and also in the International Diplomacy by possessing the principles of PANCHSHEEL and also shown the support to the alternative dispute settlement institution ASIAN-AFRICO LEAHL CONSULTATIVE ORGAINSATION (AALCO). This values and rules provide them amicable and peaceful settlement and also resembles the India’s perspective towards the trade and investment arena in the global market. This leads to door open by the India in order explore new ideas of providing India as a neutral party in the International disputes mostly in the Asia-Pacific Regional Mediation Organization.


 In many countries there is uniform pattern in order to mediating the Industrial Disputes. In case of labour management the conflict does not rely totally on the mentioned agreement but also on the machinery to settle  the capacity, in many instance the the government provides mediator in order to resolve the disputes. In many countries like US federal government , satte or the local government provides various mediator in order to resolve the issues and also rely on the mediation. Now a days western Europe appoint there mediator in all the Industrial Disputes and labour in order to reconcile the issues in much effective mannered. In many instance the government have made mediator agency buy the government, have been embraced with the power in order to intervene in any dispute which have public interest in it.


Great Britain in 1825 between Portugal and Brazil: of the great powers in 1868-69 between Greece and Turkey were strained over the Crete and the Pope Leo XIII in 1885 between the Germany and the Spain in dispute of Caroline Island.

Further the importance of the Mediation have been realized by the all international countries in order to reach the solution. In making more further impactive steps towards the Mediation they made in the HAGUE CONVENTIONOF 1899 and 1907 and the league of Nations Covenant. This leads to further in to the Charter of United nations that disputes need to be solved in much peace full mannered and maintain the relationship.

There are many disputes which have been referred to the Mediation by discussing the Council or in the Assembly. In May 1948, The General Assembly have appointed a mediator in order to resolve the dispute in region of Palestine.

In the season of spring and winter of 1949 a mediator was chosen to conclude armistice agreements between the Israel and the other four Arabs countries. Later on The General Council have made mandatory for the Mediation for various disputes arisen from the International outlook and also made mandatory function. The following commission are like Indonesia, commission of India – Pakistan, the Palestine Conciliation commission and the commission of Korea.

The men behind the process to become mandatory was secretaries – general, especially Dag Hammaeskjold, have made great efforts in order to deal with the diplomacy that can be rigid.


 As far as Mediation is concerned its been in to practice from several years and played and vital role in order to resolve the dispute and also to provide win -win situation to the both the parties without putting and party unheard and not given opportunity to express their views regarding the issues. The Mediation in international conflicts not only resolve the disputes but also providing of the best way to deal the conflict and global level. Mediation in international have became one of the best way to handle the International diplomacy. This have been encouraged by the all individual, state, nations and other organization to pull out the solution in much efficient mannered and also not allowed any party in strong position to overcome or possessed there dominance in the process.

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